Thadou Tribe

Thadous are the single largest tribe in Manipur.
Thadous are in India,Myanmar,Israel and even in the Philipines.

Thadou Grammer

BY  T. C. HODSON. 1906.
Bibliography ... ... ••• i — iii
Introduction ... ... ••• v — vi
Alphabet ... ... ... ... 1
Vowel modifications ... ... ... 2
Consonantal changes ... ... ... 3
Tones and stress ... ... ... 5
Parts of speech ... ... ... 6
Articles ... ... ... ... t£.
Nouns ... ... ... ... 7
Adjectives ... ... ... , .•• 12
Adverbs ... ... ... ... 15
Pronouns ... ... ... ••• id.
Numerals ... ... ... ... 16
Verbs ... ... . ... ... 18
Verbal constructions ... ••• ••• 29
Voices •... ... ••• ... 81
Relative construction ... ... ... 32
Postpositions ... ••• ... ,.. i6.
Notes on the Syntax ••• ... ... 33
Formation of compound words ... ... 35
Specimen sentences ... ... ... 36
Thado-English Dictionary ... ... 61
English-Thado Dictionary ... ... 85
Macrae, John,— Account of the Kookies or Lunctas, Asiatic
Researches, Vol. vii, 1801, pp. 183 and fE. The short Voca-
bulary agrees partly with Thado, partly with Langrong.
Adeltm?, Johaiin Christoph, — Mithridates oder allgemeine
Sprachenkunde mit dem Vater XJnser als Sprachprobe in bey
nahe funfhundert Sprachen und Mundarten. Berlin, 1806.
Mention of the Kukis, Vol. iv, pp. 67 and 469.
Barbe, the Rev. M., — Some account of the Hill Tribes in the inte-
rior of the District of Chittagong, in a letter to the Secretary
of the Asiatic Society. Journal of the Asiatic Society
of Bengal, Vol. xiv, 1845, pp. 380 and ff. Contains a short
Kookie Vocabulary on pp. 388 and ff. It does not agree with
any of the known Kuki languages. The numerals seem to be
old Kuki.
Stewart, Lieut. R., — Notes on Northern Cachar. Journal of
the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. xxiv, 1855, pp.
582 and ff. Account of the Kukis on pages 617 and
ff. with a Thado Vocabulary.
Stewart, Lieut. R.,— A slight notice of the Grammar of the Thado
or new Kookie language. Journal of the Asiatic Society
of Bengal, Vol. xxv, 1857, pp. 178 and ff.
McOuUoch, Major W., — Account of the Valley of Munnipore and of
the Hill Tribes, with a comparative Vocabulary of the Munni-
pore and other languages. Selections from the Records of the
Government of India (Foreign Department), No. xxvii, Calcut-
ta, 1859. Account of the Khongjais on pp. 55 and ff.,
Vocabularies, Kookie or Thada, etc.. Appendix, pp. vii and
Balton, Edward Tuite, — Descriptive Ethnology of Bengal.
Calcutta, 1872. Account of the Kukis on pp. 44 and ff.
p. 111. Vocabularies, after Stewart, on p. 75.
^ (Taken from the list given by Dr. Grierson, Linguistic Survey of India,
Vol. Ill, p, 61.)
Butler, Joho, — Vocabularies of Naga Hill Tribes. Journal
of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. xlii, Part i, 1873,
Appendix. Contains a Kuki, that is, Thado, Vocabulary.
Campbell, Sir George, — Specimens of Languages of India, includ-
ing those of the Aboriginal Tribes of Bengal, the Central Pro-
vinces and the Eastern Frontier. Calcutta, 1874. Kukee of
Cachar, pp. 204 and fE.
Forbes, C. J., — On Tibeto-Burman languages. Journal of the Royal
Asiatic Society, New Series, Vol. x, 1878, pp. 210 and ff.
Reprinted in Comparative Grammar of the Languages of
Further India. A Fragment. London 1881, pp. 52 and ff .
The * Kuki ' mentioned in this article cannot be identified.
In some particulars it agrees with Thado and in others
with Lushai, etc.
Damant, G. H., — Notes on the locality and population of the Tribes
dwelling between the Brahmaputra and Ningthi Rivers.
Journal of the Royal Asiatic Society, New Series. Vol.
xii, 1880, pp. 228 and fE. Account of iNew Kuki, pp. 238 and
f. and p.*i252, Vocabularies, Thado, etc., on p. 255.
Hunter, W. W., — The Imperial Gazetteer of India. London, 1886.
Vol. X, pp. 150 and f.
Soppitt, C. A., — ^A short account of the Kuki-Lushai Tribes on the
North East Frontier (districts Cachar, Sylhet, Naga Hills, etc.
and the North Cachar HillsJ, with an Outline Grammar of the
Rangkhol-Lushai Language and a Comparison of Lushai with
other dialects. Shillong, 1887.
Account of the tribes on pp. 1 and ff. Vocabulary of Jansen and
Thadoi on pp. 83 and 5.
Gait, E. A.,— Census of India, 1891, Assam, Volume I, Report.
Shillong, 1892. Note on Kuki Languages on pp. 181 and
f. Note on the Kuki-Lushai tribes on pp. 251 and ff.
EUes, Colonel E. R.— Military Report on tha Chin-Lushai
Country, Simla, 1893. Note on the Thados on p. 16.
Davis, A. W.,— Gazetteer of the North Lushai Hills. Compiled
under the orders of the Chief Commissioner of Assam . Shillong,
1894. Note on Jansen, Thade, and Shingsong on pp. 3 and f.
Carey, Bertram, S. and H. N. Tuck. The Chin Hills : A
History of the People our Dealings with them, their Customs,
and Manners, and a Gazetteer of their Country. Rangoon,
1896. History of the Thados, Vol. i, pp. 135 and ff.
Scott, J. George, assisted by J. P. Hardiman, — Gazetteer of
Upper Burma and the Shan States. Part I, Volume I,
liangoon, 1900. Note on the Thados on p. 457.
Grierson, Dr. G. A., c.i.e., Ph.D. — Linguistic Survey of India*
Volume III, Part III, pp. 1-16 and pp. 61 and ff., and
Vocabularies on pp. 87-104.
THE Thado language is spojken by the people whom we cal
Kulas, but who call, themselves the desceudants of Tbado
They number between twenty and thirty thousand^ and are
found in all partft o£ the, M^^nipur State aud beyoud it on the norti-
east, whither numbers have of late years migrated, as well as in
outlying portions of the Naga Hills, the North .Cachar Hills, and
The language belongs to the Tibeto-Burman group, and has been
assigned by Dr. Grierson (from whom I have received very valua-
ble help and advice) to the new Kuki division of that group.
It has, therefore, affinities with languages so far apart as Garo
and Kachin. It is connected, though not directly, with
Methe, the language of the Manipuris. I do not know whether
the development of these languj^ges has proceeded on divergent
lines, but it is certain that, while a large and an increasing number
of Kukis iinderstand Manipuri, a very fair proportion, especially
those who by reason of their seclusion in the more distant hills of
the State have not been brought into close contact with Manipuris,
do not understand it. I mention this because Lieutenant Stewart
declares that most of them understand Manipuri.
The language possesses no written character, and, owing to the
fact that the advance into the hills of the authority of the British
Government has removed the dread of external enemies, which
has in the past produced homogeneous communities of a fair size,
a centrifugal tendency is now manifest which is sure to react on the
stability of the language. Lieutenant Stewart in his Notes on
Northern Oachar, published in 1856,* has preserved a fragment of
an old song which at that time was intelligible to the people.
These songs have now ceased to possess a definite meaning,
though tradition preserves a general idea of their contents. The
extract is, unfortunately, not long enough to enable us to draw
any very satisfactory conclusions as to the nature of the changes
to which the language has in that interval of time been subjected.
Nevertheless, from the extract as well as from his grammatical
notes, it is abundantly clear that the language is becoming less nasal.
* Jownal of the Asiatic Society of Bengal, Volume XXIV, 1855, pp. 582 ff.
The language is in such a fluid state that it has been far from
easy to formulate precise grammatical rules. Indeed, all I can claim
to have done is to indicate tendencies and prevailing fashions, and
I trust that this fact may be borne in mind, even when my enun-
ciation of a grammatiokl rule seen^p most emphatic.
There are but few foreign words in current use, and those are
probably of recent acquisition, dating from the occupation of
Manipur by the British Government in 1891. Such words are —
*khajona ' (revenue), * comison ' (commission), * bichar ' (trial), etc.
The following Alphabet has been prepared on the lines of the
system of transliteration suggested by Sir Charles Lyall :—
a, when not marked always short, as in company, never sharp,
as in pan, or misused for ^, as in mate.
5, long, as ah father, not as in ball. If the sound of a in pan
is required, it might be represented by a.
a, longer still, as a in ball.
by as in English.
chy as ch in church.
e^ unmarked, has the sound of e in then, met, bed.
5, should be used for the sound ey in they or ai in aim.
ph is the nearest combination which can be taken to represent
the sound of an /in Enplish, but the^A in Thado consists
of a distinct p and a distinct A, although the aspirates are
weak in Thado.
g hard, as ^r in gun.
A, as in English.
i short, as i in in.
i marked, as ^ in machine,
ifc, as in English.
Z, as in English. There is an aspirated I which is written W,
see note on consonants, page 3.
tn^ as in English.
n, as in English.
ng^ compound sound, which possesses both the n and the g
sounds as in the word bringing, not as in younger.
unmarked, as o in pot.
long and marked, as o in bone.
|), as in English.
r, as r in Hindustani.
9, as 9 in this.
t, often a semi-aspirated sound, t plus a light A, especially
when used as an initial ; otherwise as the English L
«, as u in bull.
ii, marked, as oo in English,
r, as in English.
tc, as in English.
y^ as in English.
The following diphthong sounds are employed by the Thados :—
ao broad sound.
ai compound of ae and pronounced like * in high.
m pronounced like ee in between.
oi pronounced like oy in boy.
ou not quite so broad as ao.
The difficulties in dealing with the important question of
vowel modification may be greatly reduced if the following facts
are carefully brought out : —
(1) That a long vowel is liable to be shortened when a suffix
is added to it, especially if the vowel in the suffixed syllable be
(2) That there is a strong tendency to modify the vowel in
the prefix, especially the pronominal prefixes ka (my, or our),
na (thy, or your), a (his, her, or their), and to assimilate it
to the vowel in the theme or root syllable of the combina-
(3) That the hiatus between concurrent vowels may be
bridged either by contraction or by the use of an euphonic con-
(4) That the silence or elision of a final consonant tend to
the lengthening of the vowel, and in consequence of this in
monosyllables with an open vowel, that vowel is nearly always
In the course of the conjugation of a verb the vowel changes
tiire often numerous, as, for instance, the verb de to love, or
like, has the form dui in the past tense as well as the more regu-
lar form rfg, as ka-dm-td-ve and ka-de-td-ve. U and i are some-
times interchanged in the future, as bol-i-nte and holu-nte, and in
this case they are introduced for the sake of euphony, though i is
more often used for this construction than u.
In certain tenses and forms of the verb cAg, to go, the e-
^comes i, as na-che-m ? are you going ? and na-chim ; but we also
Lave na-che-ham. Usjid o are interchangeable in the negative
suffix, though it is probable that their use is conditioned by the
xule^f vowel assimilation above mentioned.
A J e, and u are employed as euphonic vowels, especially in the
verb, where, as will be shown in the proper section, the formation
of the future tense especially demands the insertion of an euphonic
vowel when the root of the verb ends in a consonant :
as, ka-ga-del-U've, we are in the habit of pursuing, the
verbal root is del^ to follow or pursue, ve is the suffix of
iteration or habit, and Jca is the pronominal affix of the
first person, and ^ra is otiose or a reduplication.
or, a-chnwil'taiy they have moved away. In this example the
root is chou^ to move, a is the pronominal prefix of the third
person and tat is the sign of the past tense, the tense of
completed action ; u is inserted for the sake of euphony or
a possible explanation is that w is a contraction for * you *
which conveys the sense of fully-perfected action.
or, um-a-ham^ is there. The verbal root is um, to be, ham is
the usual interrogative suffix, and the a is euphonic ;
or, bol-i'tite, will do : bol is the root and nte is the sign of the
future tense, and i {u being equally available) is euphonic.
Prom the insertion of an euphonic vowel in the word ka-Jcot-
* U've,^ we are in the habit of placing, it may be inferred that the
combination oi is regarded as terminated by a letter y, having a
consonantal value rather than the force of a vowel, on the
ground that if oi were regarded as a vowel sound, no euphonic
vowel would have been necessary, while the final consonant
necessitates this addition.
A large number of words in Thado end in an open vowel, so
that it seems that the majority of words end in a long vowel, but
the real value of the vowel can often be determined by the value
which it has in combination.
A final consonant, whether it terminates a whole word or only
a syllable in a polysyllabic word, is often elided in Thado, as mu
for muki to see, cho for chok, to buy, sou for souk, slave, phe and
phek, and ding for di^ future gerund, khat-na and kha-na, yu and
yut, to fall of rain, chd and chaf^ to be afraid, chep, to suck,
and che.
We must conclude that the root chep, to suck, loses its final
consonant because in the form na chevem ? do you suck ? the
syllable ve is the sign of the customary present, q.v.
The word is used as follows :
thibu na-che vem?
pipe you suck ?
do you smoke ?
kolchu na-chS'vem ?
sugarcane you suck ?
do you eat sugarcane ?
g initial is properly hard, but in some words it is considerably
softened, for we have wup (Stewart) and gup.
For the sake of euphony, a hiatus between concurrent vowels
is bridged by the insertion of a consonant, as kei-y-in for hei in-
mine and M-y-am for hi-am.
In the past tense the insertion of the euphonic letter v is very
common, as ka-choi-td-ve for ka-choi-td-e. In the future tenses
of verbs which terminate in an open vowel, the syllable vi is
inserted for the sake of euphony. This syllable is probably
distinct from the syllable ve of the habitual present.
The sound which has been variously written as Iha, thla, kla
Beems to me to be better represented by the combination hla^ as
the consonant is undoubtedly preceded by an aspirate, although
but faintly sounded.*
s sometimes appears as «A, as in the word ahu-mil^ to forget,
in which ahu is the causative prefix su.
Z, «, r, are sometimes confused, especially by those who are
familiar with Manipuri, where this practice is common.
In words such as che-thang, go, man-tang^ seize, there are
reasons for holding that the initial consonant of the tense suffix is
aspirated or unaspirated to harmonise with the consonant initial of
the root of the verb. There are also similar changes in the pre-
fixes, such as ki, which indicates mutuality, as is evidenced by the
form given by Dr. Grierson a-gi-gomtai^ they joined themselves
together, where the original root kbm has been softened to gbm
and the initial consonant of the mutual prefix also softened in
Words which begin with an a, such as d4aty duck, d-im^ Q^;gy
d'Cha^ bird, if the speaker be at all slipshod or indistinct, have a
faint sound of w.
We also find interchanges going on between other conso-
nants, one sept of the tribe preferring one consonant, while others
adhere to another, as is shown by the word hbm or Aap, to divide.
* In Tibetan the " h" precedes the consonant, see Jaschke Practical Grammar
(1866) page 6.
Introduction to Tibetan-English Dictionary, 1902, by Sarat Chandra Das, page xxii
In the future tenses d and t are sometimes apparently inter-
changeable, but this is probably due to the hannonising of the
consonants in accordance with the rules set forth above.
It is probable that the nasal termination ng has in many
cases been dropped, compare lu, head, and lung. There is cer-
tainly a tendency to denasaHse the language.
Many words seem to have a slight aspiration, especiafty at-
tached to the initial consonant, but it is so slight that in many
cases the simple unaspirated consonant is written.
Thus we find gho and go, to endeavour, as well as a form in
Ro,* khalf and kal, to climb, and in this connection we may refer to
the very numerous class of words which show tokens of a similarity
to words having the same meaning in Manipuri, but aspirated in
the one language and unaspirated in the other, and vice versd
fhei Thado and hei Manipuri, thung Manipuri and hung Thado.
Compare also mu Thndo and u Manipuri. The inference which
may be drawn from this is that the aspiration is very slight and
liable to disappear. Per the sake of euphony, I is sometimes
inserted, as na-het'lem, the t in this word being: faint.
After ng, t becomes d, as aying-dd-le for aying-td-le.
The following consonants are used as final — d (rare and easily converted to t) k, I,
fto, n, ng, p* ^» (a weak sound possibly a relic of a * liigh ' tone, cf . la and lah in Khasi) t, v
(rare, possibly due to the use of the interative suffix).
In regard to the matter of tones and stress, the principal
stress is laid on the syllable containing the theme or root, as in the
sentence, na-yi-nu a-hoi-td (v) em? A-hoi-tai. Kade. Your wife
she pretty is ? (Is your wife pretty ?) She pretty is I love (She is
pretty, I love her). The stress in the first word is laid on the sylla-
ble yif in the second word on the syllable hoi, in the third word
oti the syllable hoi, in the fourth word on the syllable de, the
emphasised syllable being in each case that which is operative,
conveying the theme or root of the word. Other than this, there
is no system of tonal modification, and the only emphasis is that
which the natural exigencies of conversation demand, and it may
therefore be called natural emphasis.
By the reduplication of syllables a very varied and emphatic
effect is obtained, especially in the verb, and this method of ampli-
fying the slender store of linguistic material possessed by the
language is worthy of note. The subject of the emphasising
and modifying the meaning of the verb by means of suflSxes,
prefixes, and reduplication is referred to in some detail in' the
section relating to the verb, pages 25-28.
* g initiali as stated above, is often weakened.
Por the sake of convenience, I have adhered throughout to
the familiar classification of the parts of speech into nouns, adjec-
tives, etc., but I realise that in these Tibeto-Burman languages the
differentiation of the parts of speech is not as sharply brought out
as in an Aryan language. I find that the Thado verb is, with one
or two exceptions which are susceptible of reasonable explanations,
invariably provided with the pronominal prefix by means of
which the person of the subject is indicated suflBiciently clearly.
In this respect it resembles the nouns. It may well be the case
that the so-called verb is in realitv a sort of noun and that the
true meaning of the sentence kein nang to ha mu-i is * by me as
regards you my seeing is/ or * I see you.' In archaic Latin a
parallel construction occurs, as in the sentence quid tibi hanc
tactio est ? why do you touch this ? So, again, it will be noticed
that with all adjectives the prefix a is employed. No doubt it
is quite possible to regard this prefix as otiose, but it may very
possibly be identical with the pronominal prefix of the third
person, on which hypothesis the accurate sense of the sentence ka
pa aphd i .would be ' my father his goodness is ' or ' my father is
good.' At first sight this explanation may appear inconsistent
with the statement that the speakers of this language have not
reached the stage of thought where the formation of abstract
conceptions is possible, and, adhering, as I do, to that statement
of the condition of their mental development, I would reconcile
the two statements by the fact that, in denying that abstractions
are not within their mental grasp, it is not denied that a man who
sees a number of black objects has an idea of blackness as
common to them all, but the criticism rather refers to the sort
of higher abstraction which involves an element of consciousness
as opposed to the subconscious operation of the mind in appre-
hending the common idea of blackness in a number of black
The indefinite article is the numeral hhat^ one, and is only
employed when the fact of singularity is to be specially
There are no definite articles, but the demonstrative pronouns
hiche H, this, and huche AoAo, that, are used in their
place, as—
JSiche flume hi a hoi-i^
This woman pretty is.
Nouns are the names of persons or material objects. The
people have not yet reached the stage of thought when the forma-
tion of abstract ideas is possible, and for that reason there are
no nouns conveying abstract conceptions. The limited nature of
the vocabulary as well as the absence of any generic or class
terms, are to be attributed to this fact and to the low level of
their civilisation. In this language we meet a large number of
what appear to us to be homonyms, each of which possesses a
distinguishing difference, which is of the greatest importance as
due to the habit of regarding individual characteristics to the
exclusion of the general resemblances of an ordered type.
Nouns relate to animate or inanimate objects. The latter
class for grammatical purposes are regarded as sexless, and the
affixes conveying the distinction of sex are only employed with
the former, which are again classified as human or as animals.
Thus we have only to do with natural sex.
The simplest method of expressing sex distinction in the case
of human beings is by the use of the words pasal, man or male,
and numey woman or female, after the noun, as —
Na-chd paaal ham, nvme ham ?
Your child male is female is ?
Is your child a boy or a girl ?
We have also by derivation from the above method chd-pa
son, chd-nu, daughter, tu-pdi grandson, tu-nu, granddaughter
yi'Pd, husband, yi-nu, wife, where the common roots cAa, child,
tu, grandchild, yi, spouse, are distinguished by the use of the
affixes denoting sex which are themselves nouns in origin, capable
of separate employment. Indeed, the words chd, child, tu, grand-
child, 2/i, spouse, are themselves used without any distinguishing
prefixes when their natural gender is evident from the circum-
stances of the conversation, as, when talking to a woman it would
be unnecessary to use the suffix pd in asking such a question as —
Na-yi a-in-d Um-em ?
Your spouse his house in is ?
Is your husband at home ?
In the case of such words as mao, woman, pdgong, widower,
metai, widow, hldngval, tangvdl, bachelor, nungdy girl, no distin-
guishing suffix is necessary, because the sex is there natural and
expressed by the meaning of the word.
Such words as tasipu, old man, tasipi, old woman, su-pi^
daughter, ni, mother-in-law or aunt, are not regular and may be
In the case of animals, distinction of sex is expressed by the
use .of the atBxes chal, male, Jp^, female, and aldcha^ which is used
pf the female of animals which have never had any young, as —
Bm chal, dog, hui pi, bitch, hui aldcha, young bitch.*
The female form pi resembles but must be distinguished from
the magnitive suffix pi which is used in contrast to the diminutive
form chd with objects of great size, as shai-piy elephant, hum-pi,
t%er, wom-pi, bear. Chd again must be distinguished from shd,
an animal, which in all probability forms the initial component of
such words as shagh% deer, shakor, horse (compare the Manipurl
shdmu, elephant, =8hd a-wu^ black animal). Chdi is a true
diminutive, and its use is not confined to animals, as is evidenced
by the word chem-chd, little dao, from chem dao, meaning knife.
Further, it is used to give additional force to the word neo, small,
a^s ixx the sentence —
Siche hhu a-len^e adang neo chd, chd.
This village large is, others small, small, small.
This is a pig village, while the rest are tiny.
Chang denotes anything round, and mo^ the noun in a
slight degree: lit head, luchang, head, khi, necklace, khi-
change bead, mei fire, mei, chang, bullet.
While dealing with the question of nouns it may be as well
to anticipate a matter which perhaps might equally well be
treated of in the section discussing personal pronouns and to
emphasise at once the fact that nouns denoting parts of the body
aAd relationshij) are always preceded by a possessive affix derived
J Vol. 3, L. S. I., from the personal pronoun. Dr. Grierson
p. 16-17. says,t " A father in the abstract who is not the
father of any individual person is an idea which requires a certain
amount of reflection ; and such words are accordingly never used
alone in the Kuki-Chin languages, but are always preceded by a
* Stewart, J. A. B. S., xxv, 1856, p. 180, makes the statement that " some of the
ruder Kookies, however, retain a more primitive mode of distinguishing the sex, and
uuhjom Jung, penis, and shoo, vxdva, instead, thus, kel, goat —
kel-jung, a he-goat
kel'shoo, a she-goat."
t Compare the use of machd in Manipuri, kdng thdl, bed, kdng tholmacha, a crib,
a phrase which corresponds to our nursery talk— a baby bed-^a little bed.
possessive pronoun. A father cannot be imagined except as
somebody's father, and a hand cannot be thought of except as
belonging to someone. Thus, kapd^ my father, nanu^ thy
mother, aJchut^ his hand. Td^ nu^ khut, are never used by them-
selves. The possessive is, of course, unnecessary when the noun
is defined by means of a genitive, but even in such cases we find
that the tendency towards specialisation has caused a possessive
pronoun to be added to the governing noun."
There are two numbers, singular and plural. The singular is
the simple noun, while the plural is denoted by the addition of ho
or te ; tampi^ many, nge, many, — the two former are generally, if
not exclusively, used with nouns of living objects. As in Mani-
puri, in common speech plurality must often be inferred from the
general context, so that the forms above mentioned are only^ used
when it is necessary to emphasise the fact of plurality. If the
fact of * singularity '-is to be emphasised, the word khat, one, is
used, and this, as stated above, forms the only indefinite article
in the language.
The Nominative Case or Case of the Subject.
The general rule is that there is no affix for the nominative
case, but in many cases, especially where the verb is in the past
positive tense, the suffix commonly regarded as the suffix of
agency which has the same extended range of employment as the
corresponding forms in other dialects of the Tibeto-Burman group,
as na in Manipuri is affixed to the simple noun. * 7^,' the suffix
in question, is used, as will be seen later, in a variety of meanings.
An explanation of the matter which at first suggested itself to me
was that, obscured by the irregular and incomplete development
of the verb, there was attached to the past tenses a faint idea of
the * passive voice,' and that to this was due the use of the
grammatical suffix denoting agency. In some cases euphonistic
nasalisation will satisfactorily account for this phenomenon.
Purthermore, the " parts of speech " are not as rigorously differ-
entiated in this as in an Aryan language.
The Accusative Case, or Case of the Direct Object.
The order of the words being, as we shall see, practically fixed,
the relation to the verb, which in other languages is denoted by
some case modification or affix, is in Thado decisively deter-
mined by position in the sentence. Should it be necessary to lay
special stress on the relation, the purpose is effected by the em-
ployment of the suffix * to ' which might in time acquire the
peculiar functions of a true * accusative ' suffix.
The Dative Case, or Case of the Indirect Object.
The suffix kom-df which may be derived from the adverb kom,
near, is used to convey all signification of the indirect object, the
object or person indirectly affected by the action described by the
verb. Dr. Grierson gives hengd and heng as suffixes of the indi-
rect object case, but they are not in common use among the
people speaking the Thado language, and may be regarded as .
nasalised forms of the affix Am, which is used in combination
with verbs, such as chao^ to bring, and means * hither.' Since kom
means ' near ' and hengd means ^ hither,' the true affix of the case
of the indirect object would thus seem to be the simple vowel d.
This view is confirmed by the fact that the affix d is used with
the adverbs of place, such as hoi-d, where, whither, or whence, a
use which affords an exact parallel to the dative use of a with
the forms kom and heng in such sentences as —
Amd ken-gom-d ka-khi eldpitai.
He me from my necklace he snatched has.
He has snatched my necklace from me.
Nang hoi-d na-chim ?
You whither you going are ?
Where are you going to ?
Ke nang'{k)gom'd lupd khat ka pe-nge.
I you near to rupee one I give will.
I will give you a rupee.
There are thus reasons for attributing a locative function to
the affix d as well as its dative or indirect object power. We
find it with the verb ka-bol-dj my doing in, a-wui-n-d, the burial
place, i'bol'dy what doing in. Compare also tu-kum-di this
season in. Stewart also gives a form in khu as the dative termi-
nation. This I have never met.
The Genitive or Possessive Case.
The proper method of expressing possession is by the use of
the pronominal prefixes ka^ na^ a, my or our, thy or your, his,
her, their, or by possessive pronouns such as ke-md, my, nang-u-
bd, thy, ndho'Va^ your. The fact of possession may be emphasised,
if desired, by the use of the personal pronoun in addition, as —
Ka-shdl'lu, my granaries,
£en ka-shdl'lu^ my very own granaries.
Dr. Grierson states that the genitire is indicated by putting
the governed before the governing noun, as Jca-pd souky mj father's
slaves, but this I regard as a case where the right reading
should be ka-pd a-souk^ my father his slaves. In course of
time these possessive prefixes become redundant and are omitted
in casual speech, with the result that the * genitive ' or possessive
relation appears to be effected by the juxtaposition of the govern-
ed and the governing noun. Such a combination as kapd a-sotik
is decidedly cacophoniotis. The language exhibits compounds
such as me-lOy gunpowder [me^ fire, Id, medicine (cf. Manipuri
nongme hidak) guiipowder]^ pdri'in^ tent (^5/^, cloth, m, house),
but the idea conveyed by the juxtaposition of the two nouns is
certainly not that of possession. The method of forming com-
pounds by simple juxtaposition, and thus adding to the vocabulary
of the language, is found in other languages.
The Agent or Instrumental Case.
Reference has been made to the manner in which the suffix
in is used with nouns occupying the position and to all intents
and purposes discharging the functions of the subject in a
sentence, and it may be advantageous to ascertain its true mean-
ing by comparison of its various functions when used with the
several parts of speech, due regard being had to the fact that the
parts of speech are not as rigorously differentiated as they are in
an Aryan language.
It is used with nouns, pronouns, adjectives, and verbs. When
used with a noun or pronoun, assuming that it is not merely an
euphonic nasalisation, devoid of any influence on the noun, it
seems to possess an agent or instrumental force. Again, when
used with an adjective, it converts that adjective into an adverb.
Again, it is the suffix by means of which the participles of the
verb are formed and in combination with the past participle it
has in many cases the effect of imparting a sense of causality
to the participle. Mention may be here made of the fact that
the future tenses are formed by simple nasalisation or the addi-
tion of the nasal sound n with an adhering consonant. ^
The suffix in may, therefore, be regarded as the sufiBx of
agency or instrumentality, though it is to be borne in mind that,
especially in the case of nouns or pronouns ending in an open
vowel, it may be added only as an euphonic nasalisation, without
necessarily connoting the ideas of agency or of instrumentality.
The same difficulty presents itself in Manipuri with the suffix na
— ■ — ■ ■ ■' I I I .^
which exactly corresponds to in. In the case of Lushai (Dulien)*
the corresponding form is designated the ^ nominative suffix/
The truth is that confusion arises from the application to these
Tibeto-Burman languages of a grammatical terminology which
is based on the structure of Aryan languages. t
Tasipi-n mengchd tui sungd a shdn-hliit'tai.
Old woman by cat water in she press enter has.
The old woman has dipped the cat in the water.
Ke'hon in thing-in ka-s&we.
We houpe wood by we build.
We build our houses with wood.
Amd thing chem-in a sdi-tai.
Ho tree axe by he cut has.
He felled the tree with his axe.
It is apparently not used when the demonstrative suffixes hi
and hu are used, nor when the noun terminates in a diphthong.
When a numeral is used, it is suffixed to the numeral and not to
the noun, as —
JPasal nin thing kzing a kiip tai.
Men two (by) wood hollow (box) they overturn have.
The two men have upset the box.
The form nin used below is worthy of note : —
lUle khat nin nang mele pao a ki-tem-chu-shd-nte.
Manipuri one by you Manipuri speech he mutually
know seize make will.
A Manipuri will teach you Manipur language.
Haosdlen-in humpi hd a-khet-tai.
Chief great- by -tiger tooth bitten have.
The chiefs have taken the oath on the tiger's tooth.
In this sentence JECao-sd-len is treated as a single word.
Adjectives describe the qualities of nouns and exhibit modifi-
cations of a simple nature similar to those of the elementary
parts of the verb, and are also modified by the insertion of
negative suffixes which for the direct form are lo and hi, the
Savidge and Lorrain's Grammar, q.v.
See also page 30, remarks on * passive ' voice.
former apparently being preferably used when the adjective is
used as an epithet, and the latter when the adjective is used
predicatively, though Id is sometimes employed —
Chem ahem-ld-pttrdtdcin matu amtapoi.
Axe sharp not, take away, use is not.
Take the blunt axe away, it is no use.
Mi pha Id* na-hi.
Man good not you are.
You are a scamp (a bad man).
Tni dung-aJcan-hi'tai.
Biver dry not is.
The river is not dry.
Adjectives follow the nouns they qualify.
As noted by Dr. Grierson, adjectives are usually preceded by
the prefix a, which exerts no modificatory effect on the meaning
of the word ; but see page 5.
It is obvious that adjectives may be regarded as descriptive
of the objective qualities of nouns, while verbs deal with the
qualities of nouns as active and subjective towards other nouns.
Hence adjectives have certain modifications resembling these
of the verb.
The simple forms of the adjective are —
a-hoi'i pretty is.
a-hoi-tai pretty was, more emphatic.
a-hoi-em ? is pretty, interrogative positive.
a-hoi-hi-em is not pretty, interrogative negative.
a-hoi'lo is not pretty, direct negative epithet.
ph&nte will be good.
aphd'tai is good.
Comparison is effected in two ways : —
(1) By the use of the particle sanga or sangin, as —
Miche khu sangd ka-khu a-len-e.
This village than my village it big is.
My village is bigger than this.
(2) By the use of adversative sentences, as —
JBfiche khu a-ne^ ka-khu a-len-e^
This village it small, my village it big is.
My village is bigger than this.
* The vowel a is long in the simple form, but is shortened by the addition of the
negatiye affix,— see remarks on vowels, sujora, page 2.
The degree of superlative comparison is effected by the use in
either of the two ways above described of some word or phrase
which has the meaning of all —
(1) Khu abon sangd Jca-Jchu a-len-e.
Villages all than my village rt big is.
My village is the biggest of all.
(2) Ka-khu a-len-e^ khu adang neochd chd
My village it big is, villages other small, small,
My village is far the biggest of all.
An absolute superlative is obtained by the use of the suffix
beshOf which means ' exceedingly * as —
A'Sang-beshe. It is exceedingly high, it is too high.
It has been suggested to me that bSshe is derived from the
Hindustani beshi, but against this must be set the fact that we
find, rarely it is true, both be and she attached separately as
suffixes to adjectival roots : pon a thdbe^ a new cloth, phe laleng-
she, a clean mat. The use of these suffixes is extremely rare, while
the employment of beshe to denote an absolute superlative is
general, even among Kukis on the north-east of Manipur, who
have had no intercourse within the memory of living man with
Hindustani-speaking people. It must be remembered that
Manipuri is the means of communication with these people, while
Assamese is employed, I believe, among Naga tribes on the north,
with whom they have been in little or no contact.
The addition of the particles pi of magnitude, and chd^ dimi-
nutive, give emphasis.* They are often employed in adversative
Stewart statesf that *' adjectives admit of comparison by
subjoining de for the comparative and pen for the superlative
degree, as —
a sd hot,
a sdde hotter,
a sd pen hottest,
and adds, " this method of comparison is frequently rejected."
I cannot say that I have ever come across an instance of its use.
* Note the following use of the magnitive and diminutive suffixes with adjectives —
a- gam la-pi it is a very long way off.
a-nai chd it is quite or very near.
O'le/ijoi big, or quite large.
a-neo chd small, or tiny.
t Journal, Asiatic Society of Bengal, Vol. xxv, 1866, page 182.
Adverbs of manner are formed from adjective roots by the
addition of the termination iuy as —
a-hoi, pretty; a-hoi-in, prettily.
a-hoi'tdy pretty (emphatic) ; a-hoi-id-iriy prettily.
There is not the same tendency to contract the adverbial form
which is derived from the root in tdy as with the verbal forms
derived from the same combination.
Adverbs of time are formed in much the same manner, as —
ton-lai-inf formerly ; tu-ni-ny today ; yai-ni-ny yesterday ;
tu'le-le-ny immediately, at once ; tu-ve-in, up to the
There are other forms produced by the suffix a, the suffix, it
will be remembered, of the locative case, as —
tu'kum-df this year ; malei-d, formerly.
The word yingU^ tomorrow, may be noted.
Adverbial phrases of time may be formed by phrases directly
derived from the verb, as —
ni'Shd-ma'Sangin, sun birth before, i.e.y before sunrise.
ni-hlUm-nung-dy sun sleep after, after sunset.
Reference should be made to the sections dealing with the
verb where verbal phrases are discussed. Page 23 sq.
Adverbs of place exhibit the locative case suffix a, as —
hoi'dy where, whither.
he-kom-dj here, near to.
hoi'kom-df there, near to.
In the phrases na-hdi-chan-ehan-i che-in^ go as fast as you
can, and a-hd-che'che-taij he goes strongly, a-hd-be-in, beat strong-
ly, we find the adverbial efifect produced by the insertion of an
adjectival root in the verb as well as by reduplication.
The adverb a-hd-nuHy strongly, which is found in the phrase
hui a-hd-nun yengi^ the wind blows strongly, is sligl^tly irregular.
The personal pronouns in Thado are Ae, I, ke-hdn, we,
nang, thou, nd-hon^ you, amd, he or she, amd-hon^ they. From
these are derived the pronominal prefixes* to which reference has
* ia, wa, (T, 1st, 3ftd aud 3rd persons respectiyely.
already been made,* as well as such (possessive forms as ke-md)
my, nang-mdy your.
The demonstrative pronouns are hiche hi^ huche ho
or huy this and that, as —
Hiche pasal hi, This boy.
JSuche nume hu^ That vroman.
Siche and huche may be used separately for " this '* and '' that ''
and the affixed syllables are employed for the purpose of emphasis
in accordance with the principle of reduplication. JETe-kom-d
here, and hoi-kom-d, there, may be mentioned.
The interrogative pronoucs are koi and ko (the latter being
much rarer than the former), i and i-bi, what, and hoi for
From these simple forms we have derived such words as ^-(c?
a, why, i'hol'd^ what doing in, wherefore or why, ^-/^a-Z5-(t;)-a,t
how, of what material, i-na-lol-em, in what manner, i-yd, how
many, i-ti-le^ when.
I-ydt-ve^ how many times, hoi-dj where, whither, and whence
(the syllable d affixed being the locative affix), hoi-kom-d, where,
hoi'lang-dy in what direction.
N,B, — The verbal changes which occur in interrogative sentences will be set forth
in the passages dealing with the verb.
The numerals are —

Som le khat-Eleven.
Som le ni-Twelve.
Som le thum-Thirteen.
Som le li-Fourteen.
Som le nga-Fifteen.
Som le gup-Sixteen.
Som le sagi-Seventeen.
Som le get-Eighteen.
Som le ko-Nineteen.
Som ni-Twenty.
Som m le khat Twenty-one.
Som nt le nt Twenty- two.
Som nt le thum Twenty -three.
Som nt le li Twenty-four.
Som nt le nga Twenty-five.
Som nt le gup Twenty-six.
Som nt le sagi Twenty-seven.
Som nt le get Twenty -eight.
Som nt le ko Twenty-nine.
Som thum Thirty.
Som thum le khat Thirty-one.
Som It Forty.
Som nga Fifty.
Som nga le khat Fifty-one.
Som gilp Sixty*.
Som gup lekhat Sixty-one.
Som sagi Seventy.
Som sagi le khat Seventy-one.
Som get Eighty.
Som gH lekat Eighty-one.
Som ko Ninety.
Som ko le khat Ninety-one.
r^ khat One hundred.
Ya nt Two hundred.
Sang One thousand.
Yd nga le som thum leget. Hundred five and ten
three and eight = five
hundred and thirty-eight.
The numerals are formed hy tens, the multiplier following the ten,
as som^ ten, som nga, ten X five = fifty. This principle is adhered
to throughout.
It is necessary to prefix the noun before each component of the
numeral, as zn sang nt, in yd gup^ in som ngd in gety houses thou-
sands two, houses hundreds six, houses tens five, houses eight ==>
two thousand six hundred and fifty-eight houses.
There are no regular ordinal numbers and therefore recourse
IS had to circumlocutory methods and paraphrases. According
to Stewart,* " The word for * first ' or ' foremost ' is amusa, and the
place of ordinals is thus supplied —
First, amusa^ second, khatbana^ after one, nt bana, after two.
• Journal Asiatie Society of Bengal, Vol. xxv of 1866, p. 182.
I have found, however, the following idiomatic constructions : —
Nang ama wang Jca-mu na-ttv-em ?
Tou him see you ' sav '?
Did you see him first ?
A-ki-na-pa a-tt-la a-phel-a Jcoi hi-am ?
They together wrangling men, he say we drive-man who is ?
(Who fi.rst separated the brawlers ?)
A-nu nunga a lung-pa koi-hi-am ?
After, after, eome-man, who is ?
Who came last of all ?
The addition of the affix ve gives the significance of times, as,
khat'Ve^ once, som-ve^ ten times, tam-ve^ many times, often.
The Verb in Thado has the following moods : — positive and nega-
tive direct, positive and negative interrogative, positive and negative
imperative, positive and negative Ixortative. There are also
verbal forms expressive of time, condition, purpose, and con-
cession. There are participial forms, positive and negative, and
the sense of the verb is further capable of modification by
the use of prefixes and suffixes, some of which are themselves
verbal roots capable of separate and independent use.
Positive Direct Forms.
The positive direct mood has three times or tenses — present,
* G«« ^+ ^ past and future. In the present tense there are
* bee note next page. * _ * i .1 j . 1 4.i_
two forms,* the one simple and the other
emphatic. The simple present is formed by the addition to the root
or verbal theme of ^, as ka-bol-i = I am doing. There is no mo-
dification for number, and throughout the verb modification
expressive of person is effected by the use of the pronominal
prefixes Ara, I or we, na, thou or you, a, he, she, or they. The
emphatic present tense is formed by the use of hi, the present
tense of the verb to be, and two pronominal prefixes, as —
Ka-hol ka-hi I do, I am, I am doing.
The simple past tense would seem to be formed by the addition
of e to the verbal root, as ka-um-e^ I was. This form is but rarely
used, and both it and the simple form of the present may be due to
Manipuri influence, which is also responsible for such forms as a-
to-ban-e^ he was sitting, in which the only true Thado element
is the root to^ to sit.
It should be noted that in actual use the people do not make
any sharp distinction between these forms of the past tense and
the present in narrative.
A third form, that of the customary direct positive present, must
it seems, be added. It is formed by the syllable ve^ which ia
preceded, when necessary, by an euphonic vowel, generally u,
thus —
In bz ka-ku've, We are in the habit of thatching our houses with
grass : or In house, bz grass, ka we, ku thatch (or cover, cf. M-kup).
ve, sign of customary present.
There are no negative forms corresponding to it.
The emphatic past tense is formed by the suflSx ta^ which is
inserted between the root of the verb and the termination of the past
tense, e^ forming an open sound which is either contracted to the diph-
thong ai or is expanded by the insertion of an euphonic consonant
v^ as ka-bol'ta-e^ ka-bol-tai, or ka-bol-ia-v-e^ I did. Dr. Grierson
(L. S. I., Vol. 3, pp. 66-07) points out that the simple root is
apparently used to denote past and present times. A present
definite and an imperfect are formed from the participle ending in
a and m, generally with the addition of some verb meaning ' to be.'
A suffix, naif is according to Stewart (Loc. Cit., p. 188) sometimes
added to the root in the present and past tenses, but it is in any
case rare.
The essential part in all future tenses of the Thado verb is a na-
salisation which may be represented by the I) sound, though the nasal
sound is carried by other letters, such as t, and in a few cases by
n simply. Thus, the primary future is formed from the simple
verbal root, when terminated by an open vowel, by the addition of
the nasal sound, as —
Che Go. Ka-che-nge I will go.
Pe Give. Ka-pe-nge I will give.
The form in Q seems to be used only with the first person, as we
have na-che-nte^ a'Che-ntey na'pe-nte, a-pe-nte. These forms are not
in common use, as their place is taken by the form (see below) in
which the euphonic syllable vi is inserted.
In cases where the verbal root ends in a consonant, the primary
future is formed by the insertion of an euphonic vowel il or *,
generally the latter, with the nasal form in nte, as —
Tat Kill. Katat'i-nte I shall kill.
Bol Do. Ka-bol'U-nte I shall do.
20 thado language.
We have also a primary future, formed from verbal roots term*
Dating in an open vowel by the insertion of the euphonic syllable
vif as—
Mu = see.
Ka-mu'vi-nge I shall see.
Na-mu-m-nte You will sec.
A-mu'vi'-nte He, she, or they will see.
Pe = give.
Ka-pe-vi-nge I or we shall see.
Na-pe'vi-nte You will see.
A-pe-m-nte He, she, or they will see.
The use of ng with the first person is less regular with the form
in vi than in the simple form formed directly from the root; thus, we
have ka'Che'vi-nte, as well as ka'Che'vi-vge=^l shall go.
The future perfect is formed from the root of the perfect tense
by the addition of a nasal syllable for the first, and nte for the
second and third persons, as from che td —
Ka-che-td-nge I or we shall have gone.
Na-che'td-nte You will have gone.
A'Che-td-nte He, she, or they will have gone.
We have also derived forms, perhaps emphatic, as —
Ka-che-ng-ka-te I or we shall go.
Na-che-ng-na-te You will go.
But a'Che-ntCy not a-che-ng-a-te^ he, she, or they will go.
There seems to be no corresponding form to this in verbs which
terminate in a consonant.
Other forms are ka-mu-na-he-te^ found in the * apodosis ' of
a conditional sentence, and ka-mu-na-te^ apparently a contraction
from the preceding form, where the nasalisation is less marked.
In these forms Dr. Grierson thinks that the sufBx te is connected
with the verb /f, to say, but it is more probable that, if capable of
separate meaning, it is connected with the verbal root te^ to be
permitted. Sir Charles Lyall has pointed out to me that in Mikir te
is used to mark both parts of a conditional sentence. The gerundial
future tense, which conveys a sense of obligation or necessity, is
formed by the suffixed syllable d^'w^r, which is often pronounced
as dZf and reduplication of the pronominal prefix, as —
Ka-bol'divg-ka-hi I shall have to do.
Na-hol'ding-na-hi You will have to do.
A-bol'dzng-a-hi He or she or they will have to do.
Negative Direct Forms.
The negative direct mood has three times, — past, present, and
future. The negative snfiix varies, Ai and po being used in the
present, pj in the future, Id and hi in the past.
The present negative tense is formed by placing the negative
suffix po or hi (rare) between the verbal root and the tense ending,
Ka-bol'pd'i I am not doing.
Ka-bol'po-i You are not doing.
A-bol'po'i He or she or they are not doing.
The past negative tense is formed by placing the negative
suffixes and /^, lo^ or la between the root of the past tense and
the tense ending e, as —
Ka-bol'ta-pd-e I or we did not do also Ka-bol-ta-lu.
N a-bol'ta-pd-e You did not do „ Na-bol-td-lu.
A'^bohta-po^ He or she or they did „ A-bol-ta-lu.
not do
The negative form in hi is rare, but is to be found in a word,
ka-mu-hi'laij the affix lai being connected with the form of the
present in nai.
The future negative forms are produced by placing the negative
suffix /5 betweefh the verbal root (whether of the simple verb or
of the past tense of the verb is immaterial) and the nasalised future
tense ending, as —
Ka-bol-po-nge I or we shall not do.
Na-bohpo-nte You will not do.
A'bol'pd-nte He, she, or they will not do.
Ka-bol td'pd-nge I shall not have done.
Na-bol-td-po-nge You will not have done.
A-bol'td'pd-nge He, she, or they will not have done.
The future gerundial negative tense is formed by the negative
suffix lo^ which is placed between the simple verbal root and the
gerundial suffix ding^ as —
Ka'Che'lO'ding-ka-hi I or we shall not have to go,
Na-che'lo'ding-na-hi You will not have to go.
A'Che-ld'ding'a-hi He, she, or they will not have
to go.
Interrogative Positive Forms.
The interrogative positive mood has three times — ^past, present
and future. In the present tense there are two forms, the one
simple the other emphatic. The simple present tense is formed
by the syllables em for the singular and am for the plural, which
are suffixed to the simple root, as —
Ibi na-boUem ? What art thou doing ?
Ibi na-bol'am ? What are you doing ?
Another form is produced by the use after roots ending in a
consonant of an euphonic vowel and the termination ham^ which
does not vary with the number, as —
Na kha a Methal um-a-ham ? Are there gun.3 in your
village ?
Sometimes an open root is closed by the insertion of an
euphonic consonant, as —
I^bol'd na-td-ra-ham ? Why are you sitting down ? But we
have instances where * ham ' is added without an euphonic con-
sonant, as —
Methal hoi-a na-chd-ham ? Where do you buy sruns ?
But it must be remembered that the final consonant of the root
cho has been dropped.
There are certain rare forms which may be noted, as —
Koi hui'Cha Mngd na ? Who dog living is? (Whose dog is it ?)
Thingnai tangeme, hongeme ?* Rubber dear is cheap is ?
(Is rubber dear or cheap ?)
Na-chen-ung mol-a asa-lam-a ? Your abode hill on high part ?
(Is your abode on the top of the hill ?)
The emphatic form is produced by the use of hi, the root of the
verb to be, which must not be confused with Ai, the negative
suffix hij as —
Nangin ibi na-hol-hi-em ? What art J;hou doing ?
Nangin ibi na-bol-hi-am ? What are you doing ?
Note. — In translating the phrase, * What am I doin^, you asP' it would be
necessary to employ a paraphrase as * Nangin ibi na-bol-hi-em, se in, na-dong-i* lit.
*You what you doing are, saying you ask P* a sentence which also exhibits the system of
direct reported speech or oratio recta (see remarks on Syntax).
The past interrogative positive is formed by adding m to the
direct form for both numbers, as —
Na-bol'ta-ve-m ? Have you done ?
The future interrogative is formed in the same way, as —
Na-bol't-ntem ? Will you do ?
The gerundial interrogative is formed by the syllable ham, as —
Na-bol'ding-ham ? Will you have to do ?
iVofe.--The ng in ding is faintly sounded in this form.
There is also a variant form to the gerundial, as —
Na-bol'ding-hi-mm ? Will you have to do ?
Negative Interrogative.
The negative interrogative mood has three times, — present,
past and future.
In the present tense, the negative suffix is Id or lu^ and the
interrogative form ham^ which is not changed for the singular and
plural, as —
Na-bol'lu ham ? Are you not doing?
The formation of the past negative interrogative tenses is simi-
lar —
Na-boHd-lu-ham ? . Have you not done ?
* Possibly connected with the Xachcha Naga form.
Sometimes the negative suffix hi is used, as —
Nora-em^ nom-hi" em? Do you wish or not ?
In the future tenses, the negative is that found in the direct
form, while the interrogative is formed by adding m to the direct
form, as —
Na-bol-po-nge-m ? Will you not do ?
Na-bol'ta'Pa-nge-m ? Will you not have done ?
In the gerundial tense the negative is unchanged and the inter-
rogative suffix is ham^ as —
Na-hol'lu'ding-ham ? Will you not have to do ?
A variant is found corresponding to the positive form in the
direct condition, as —
Na-hol'lu'ding-U-ndm ? Will you not have to do ?
Imperative Mood Positive.
There are two forms of the positive imperative, the one derived
from the simple root, the other from the root of the past tense.
The first is'formed by adding m, or sometimes un^ to the root, as—
Bol'in or bol-iln Do.
A form in tang or thang is also used, as —
Bol'tang Do. Che-thang Go.
Rarely a form in o is used, as —
Koi'd Put.
The past imperative, which is very emphatic, is formed by
adding n to the root of the past tense, as —
Bol'ta-n Get it done.
The method of formation is of course similar in both cases, as
either the vowel used with the simple root is euphonic or absorbed
in the long vowel of the root of the past tense. With roots ending
in an open vowel an euphonic consonant is employed, as —
To't'in Sit down.
The negative imperative is derived from the simple positive
imperative by insertion of the negative suffix hi between the root
and the imperative suffix iuj as —
Bol'hi'in Do not do.
There is a strong tendency to convert the i in the imperative
suffix to Uy thus effectively avoiding error, as-^
Bol'hi'un Do not do.
The Hortative Mood.
The hortative positive has two persons, — first and third. The
first person is formed from the simple root by adding tai-ti or
tau'tS, or simply te, as —
Chi'tai-te Let us go.
VmHaU'te Let us remain.
Kdn-i'te Let us fasten.
(It is possible that te is derived from the root t^, to be allowed
or permitted.)
The third person is formed from the simple root by adding
hen if the root terminates with an open vowel or en if it ends in a
consonant, as —
Che-hen Let them (or him) go.
Bol-en Let them (or him) do.
The hortative negative mood is formed from the positive forms
by the insertion for the first person of the negatives Ai, /^ or /^,
and for the third person of the negative suffix Id or lu, between the
verbal root and the hortatory suffix, as —
Che-hi {or chl'lu) tai-te Let us not go.
Che-lu'hen Let him or them not go.
Temporal forms.
Time is expressed by the suffix le^ which also conveys a condi-
tional meaning, as —
Ka-che-le If I go, or when I go.
Ka-chd'td-le If I went or when I went.
The negative forms used in conjunction with this suffix are /^,
and hi^ which are inserted between it and the root of the verb
as —
Ka-che-ld-le If I do not go.
Ka-bol-hi'le If I do not do.
Other temporal forms are produced by the employment of
suffixes, which will be mentioned later, see pages 25 and 26.
A concessive sense is imparted by the combination of the verbal
root with the suffix ydng-le-chung, as —
Na-hon som^ve ki-hd'ael-ydng-le'Chungy ken i-macha ka-tlt^
Tou ten times swear though, I a little believe not will.
Though you swear ten times over, I will not believe you.
Purpose is expressed in two ways. Firstly, by the use of the
gerundial form in ding^ as —
Chd-na'ding In order to go. Positive form.
Chi'lo-na-ding In order not to go. Negative fornix
Na in this combination may be regarded as the suflSx of the
infinitive, cf, Manipuri towna-na-ha^ in order to do. Secondly, by
the use of the future with 8hein^ * saying/ as —
Shaghi ka Jcap'i-nte, shi-in ama methal a-pu^aif
Deer I shoot will saying he gun he took.
He took his gun to shoot a deer.
Verbal Noun.
The verbal noun consists of the simple verbal root, and the
verbal root may be best distinguished from the imperative positive
tense by removing the imperative suffix tn, as che-in^ verbal root
ehS, to go. The verbal root is generally found with a pronominal
affix attached, but they are used with some considerable degree
of looseness in the verbal noun, the pronominal prefix of the first
person being found where strict concord would lead us to expect
the pronominal prefix of the third person, as —
SaO'Sd'len ha^wni^na hoi-kom-aum-am ?
Rich cattle big his burial place where at is ?
Where is the burial place of the chieftain ?
In this example the verbal noun is in the locative case.
By the use of the suffix in^ the vowel of which is absorbed
when preceded by a long vowel, participles are formed, which are
not altogether free from the agent or instrumental force of the
suffix in, thus —
She-m Saying, or by saying Present participle.
Chc'td-n^ Having gone, or because Past participle.
I had gone.
Dr. Grierson cites hing as a participle of the verb hi^ to be, the
sound * ng ' being used to form a participle, but it is rare, and it is
not impossible that hing is the root of the verb meaning to be alive.
The suffix ^, when added to the simple root, produces something
like a participle,! as ka-che-n-d^ my gbing, i-hold ? what doing in,
why? ka-mit-mu'd^ my eye seeing in (in my presence).
Ihe locative force of the suffix d is also brought out in the
example given above.
SaO'8d'len ka-toui-nd hot-kom-d um-am ?
Rich cattle big burial place where near to is ?
Where is the burial place of the chieftain ?
Stewart (Journal, Asiatic Society, Volume xxv, 1866, page
188) gives a past participle in lung or tungt stating that it is
formed by the addition of these suffixes to the present or imperative.
I cannot say that I have ever met either of these forms.
♦ Frpm root of past tense che td,
t It is reaUy the verbal noun in the * locative ' case.
By the employment qf postpositions such slb nung^j nUngin
(after, in accordance with) toanghin (because of)^ st^ or md^an-sen
(up to, or as far as), kon or ma-sangin (before), modifications are
eflFected in tfie verbal noun, as—
A-ngai-nUngin According to custom.
Ka-hung-nunga After 1 come.
Ka-bol'toangldn Because 1 do.
A-ilm-you-at All {cf. Manipuri leiha makhei).
jK^t'hmg-marsen As long as I live.
Ka-hUfig-ma-sangin Before I came.
Korchz'kdu Before I go.
Ka-che-utmgsJi^g Since I went.
Note, — Tlie difEevence between ma^aangin and hon ifi tliat tlie first refers ix> a period
long before and the latter to a time just before. The Manipuri has the same
The "word pha^ time, possibly connected with the adjective pha^
good, right, proper {cf. kai rcs)^ gives the sense of time, as—
Mou gi put jpha^in At the time of marriage.
We have also a curious form, bebule^ with the same .meaning. —
Mou gi put behule At the time of marriage.
Prefixes and suffixes.
Oombinatians with the verbal root are effected by prefixes,
pronomiiial, to indicate the person of the subject of the ve^rb aand
in other cases to modify the meaning of the verbal rool;, as —
Suor shu^ causative, as ket^ to be broken^ su-ket^ to break.
Note, — Su or sut is a separate yerbal root occnrrtng in the phrase laiti sut ka-tem^i,
I know how to write (lit., I know to make a writing), the word laili being obtained from
the Manipuri lairik.
Ki or keo indicates mutuality, as Tchen^ to divide, ki-khen^ to
separate or divorce. Ki-tem-sba, to cause to know mutually, hence
to teach.
Ki seems to be jofiten prefixed to auch verbs aB mu^ to see. In
cases where tlie subject and object are i)oth animate objects whidfa
are presuiliably gifted with vision, thus—
Ken nang to ka ki-mu-ndm e.
I you, I mutually all wish am.
I wAnt to sec you.
Kein nang methal ka mu^nom^^.
I your gun I see wish am.
I want to see your gun.
We may noticed ta^ to meet, = to encounter, cf. Mdthdy ok^na^
baj to meet, thok-pa, to happen.
The ki is often changed to g, as gigaintai, they joined
together, gi u% to rear.
hin§ to\f ard9. Us dhotij to move, hin^choUf to bring.
There Me how6Vdf| prefixes which seem to be otiose, as ga in the
word ga'ki'ld'erii take.
"^ct the mdst patt, modifications of the verbal meaning are
effected by suffixes which are often themselves capable of separate
and independent use as verbs*
Desideratives are formed by the root nom^ to winh, as ha^che*
ndm-e, I wish to go.
In the past tense it has the meaning of * to decide/ as ka-ehe-
nom-tdvey I have decided to go.
Potentiatives are formed either by the suflSx y5, or you, to be
able (physically), or te^ to be permitted or to be mentally able, as
ka-che-yd'i, I am able to go, ka-che-te, I may go.* Yd has the
force assigned to it here, especially in the present and future tenses,
but imports a sense of completed action in the past tenses to which
it also imparts an emphatic or intensive sense, as ka-bol-you tai,
1 have quite done. Or, again, as ni iydn in-mrb'yoU'td-'m'nte'in ?
days how many in houses count completely have will ? (in how
many days will you have finished counting the houses ?) but in
sim-you^taif houses count finish is = the counting of the houses is
intensitivesare formed by the use, as noted above, of the suffix
you and also of the form beshe, exceedingly, as ka'Che-ndm-beshffi
I long to go, or by simple reduplication as hlai'Mai'in=r\in fast.
Oausatives are formed by the use of the prefix su or shu men-
tioned abovet and by the use of the suffixes pe or pi, to give, and
shdy to make, as, iw, to wear, ifi-pg, to put on, to cause to
wear, mang^ to waste, mang-shdj to spoil or squander, ki-chd, to be
afraid, U-Jdi-shd, to frighten {ch is harmonised toy on account of
the shj and the final consonant, which is elided in the simple verb,
reappears in the transitive compound).
Iteratives are formed by the suffix khit, as be, to beat a drumi
bS'khit, to go on beating. It also connotes the idea of return, as
j)g-Me^, to return or give back, A MTJ^r, to come, hung-khif, to comB
back. The idea of iteration is also conveyed by simple reduplicar
tion, as be be in, go on beating.
As noted above (page 18) the suffix ve produces a ' customary '
present, and may be said to have an * iterative ' efl^ect, as shaghi
ka-ga-del-U've, deer, we hunt accustomed aTe=wo often hunt deer,
or we are in the haHt of hunting deer.
* I have found both together, as ken voacha kimu'^ou'te-po-ridef I shall sot be able
to Mee the birds.
t Page 26.
Special attention must be given to the force of the saflBx da,
which imports the sense of * to abstain or cease from/ as —
Sid ni a-r/ou'td'le, chapang loi a-che'dd-de*
Months two complete when, infant breast it suck cease may.
The infant may be weaned in two months' time.
Tukum Jchdjona na-pe dd-ding-na-hi.
This year revenue you give abstain you must.
This year you need not pay the revenue.
This construction is paralleled by the Manipuri forms chat-
ta-ba yd-re^ it is permitted not to go, or it is permitted to abstain
from going, and pi-roi-da-ba^ about not to give.
It is to be noted that by simple juxtaposition of two verbal
roots modifications are effected in the sense of the principal verb,
as hung-hlai'tai^ he came running, Id- do-in, take off.
It is possible that the suffix pi connotes the idea of wrongfully
or forcibly, as Id, to take or get, borrow, Id-pi, to take by force, seize,
get wrongfully. This force seems to attach to it in the word ki-
chen-pi, to marry {ki indicates mutuality, chen is identical with
the Manipuri chel in chel-lak-pa, to run away with).
I have been informed that mou pui is used in thft case of the
marriage of a virgin, while ki-chen-pi is the right word to be used
to denote the marriage of a widow.
Do, or dor, gives the sense of off or out from, as na-pon Id-don^
take off your clothes. Or, again, as tasipi mengchd tut sungd
a-domdor-khit-tai, old woman cat water in she lift out again
has (the old woman keeps on lifting the cat out of the water); dor
is used as a separate verb, meaning to come out, to protrude, as—
Sfumpilu khem khat a-dor-tai^
Tiger head bit one it sticks out.
The tiger's head protrudes a wee bit,
and is used as a verb I'ansitive in the phrase sou dor, to stick
panjis in the ground.
The idea of commencement is expressed by the root pan, as— ^
A'hlaipan-tai He has begun to run.
The idiomatic use of the verb ki-wo, or go, to endeavour, to try,
is distinctly interesting, as it introduces a novel form of combina-
tion with the verb. It must be used with the stem of the future
gerundial form in ding^ as —
Til gu'pd a-mat-ding a-go-e.
Thing stealer they arrest for they try.
They are trying to arrest the thief.
Che-na-ding ki wo (or 'ki ho^) mUn.
Go in order to endeavour.
Arrange to go.
* Che in this sentence is for chevj to suck.
The positive direct present in ve^ seems to have a sense of
custom or habit attached to it, as—
Shaghi ka-ga-del-U'Ve.
We are in the habit of hunting deer.
We do hunt deer.
The suffix ngai, it is usual, connotes rather more than this, as
it implies ideas of fitness, decency, right, as —
Noushen a-sho-le^ nume a-ti'le^ noushen gi-tva-ngai-am ?
Child bearing when, woman she die if, babe rear usual
is it?
Is it usual to rear the child of a woman who has died in
Amdi a-ngai a-he-po.
He customary he know not.
He is a boor {cf. Hao-na-ha kkong-i, Manipuri == He is
polite, he knows what is customary).
The suffix hid seems to convey a sense of taking and carrying
right away, as —
Shd un ahlo-mang'tdn, taking the skins right off.
The suffix chu appears to have the connotation of acquisition,
as in ki'ChUi to take, ki-tem-chu, learn, ki-chu-hldf to carry oflE
one from another, hence to quarrel, but its almost constant use in
association with the prefix ki denoting mutuality probably
involves the sense of taking from, as ki-tem-chu, to learn, lit., to
take knowledge from, from the root {em^ to know.
The following verbal constructions and compounds will need
attention : —
Vang chd, to be thirsty, as —
Ka-dang a-chd-tai I am thirsty. .
Ghil khet, to be hungry, as —
Ka-ghil a-khet-tai I am hungry.
Na-ghil khet-lem ? Are you hungry ?
Yd chd, to be ashamed, as -
Ka-yd a-chd-tai I am ashamed.
Td choly to be tired, as —
Ka-td a-chol'tai I am tired.
Td'Sang^ to believe, as —
Na-she tu ka-td sang-po-e I do not believe what you say.
Ki'hd'sel, to take an oath.
f See also wiwa, page 26.
Zing dong^ to worry, as —
I'bol'd na-lung na-dong-em ?
What doing in your heart, yoti ask ?
Why are you worrying yourself ?
Iju^g is heart, nature, while dopg is to ask, enquire.
Lung dong, to hate, as—
Amdhon 1ca4ung a-dong4ai They hate me.
It will be observed that the differenoe between the two uses of
this combination consists in the fact that in the first case the verb
is really reflective and active in the second. I am disposed to
fancy that lung is connected with lu, head, which forms part of
^ another instinctive phrase,* and if such be the
u ang (j.<>.) ^^^^ ^^^ g^g^ usage is equivalent to the meaning
* search or question one's self,' so, * to' worry,* while the second
means * they seek after my head/ ' they hate me,' an idea not
devoid of poetical instinct.
Lu hang, to be angry, as —
Alu hdng-ndm-bSshe . He is prone to fits of anger.
Lu hdng-hi-un Be not angry,
Kho'Shi, to feel cold, as— •
Ka^Jcho a-shhnte I shall feel cold.
Ohdl hem, to soothe {of. Manipuri them, to soothe) —
TFdng cheng^ to rule, as —
Ka-khu a'ChoU'taii kein wdng-cheng-you^po-nde.
My village moved has, I rule able not will be.
My village has moved, I can rule no mote.
Td'Shif, to suffice, as —
Ka-td shiMai I am satisfied.
This seems to be only used in reference to matters of exchange
or barter of material objects, as vd means to be satisfied in
the matter of eating, as ka^vd-tai, I have had enough to
Kam connotes the idea of satiety in respect to the matter of
drink, as presumably a Thado is not content to own that he has
had enough to drink unless be .is drunk. Literally, it means to
be drunk.
Sling, to suffice or to be favourable, as —
Sid hlui'd a-yu'too hling-am hling^'hi-'em ?
Month past rain it fall suffice not suffice P
is the rain of last month sufficient ?
A'hi'Chd'ehdn urn, to obey, as-—
Nangma tuhi ka-'hing-ma-san-'Sen a^hi-ehd'ehdn ka^ufn^i'nte
Tour Order I live «o far a^ obedimit I be will.
I will obey your order as long ^e I liye.
Tun-tdt to make water.
Oi tdy to ease one's self.
Vubang td, to freeze (probably this means hoar frost has
Oel hid, to hail. TFo yu, or t/ut, to rain.
Me ying, to lighten {me, fire, ying, dark).
Wan aging, to thunder I wan, sky, gin ox ging^ npifte).
Hui yeng, to blow (of wind).
I have intentionally abstained frqm referrfeig to the question
of the voices in the Thado verb because it i^ diflScuIt to ascertain
whether it possesses a passive voice as we understand it. I have
thought that both in Methe and Thado there were rules for the
employment of the agent case in na and m, respectively, and that
one of those rules was that their employment was restricted to the
past tenses, a fact which seemed to me to jusftify me in regard-
ing them as passive tenses. More particularly was this the case
with regard to the compound formp of th^ past ten^ in (Wihich
there was an element in additiqn to the vowel lengthening in
Methe te, and in Thado the syllable ^a. I was inclined ito bol4
the opinion that if we could fiud the meaining of those syUfibl^s
when used separatdly, we mi^ht :find a due to the presence or
absence of a passive attached to the§e foqms. It ,0(ppeay3 ^thafc ogi
Kaobhoha Naga the root lu m&w& ' to get',rand their^fore the forfli
ohat'iu're {M&ihe)* mi^ht mean, 'I have got thegqing,' I '^y^
gone.' iirom .the fapt that the verb like the poun .takes the
pronominal prefixes in dbado, it ^^pas fftir tp imf^c that the
verbal yoot is regarded by the spQaKers of -the Jftiigijfl,ge:as b^ipg
rather of :the nature ( of a noun than esjhibiting the (qualities, qf an
adjective. The suffix td, which gives a jpast tense Qoqipleted
power, may be connected with the JBar? thra, which imparts a
sense of completion to the verbjil root, or conveys an intensive
meaning. However, the use of the verbal root^s« noun is well
established. To return tmthe suffixes aidhe f^ent^cose.both in the
Methe and in the Thado language, at is not possible to formulate
any rule for their employment with .^the verb, as a^sense^ctf euphony
sewas in many tjasesto be the only guide, so that I find myself |af$er
• iMaiiupuri)
all in agreement with Lieutenant Stewart, who declares that siich
is the confusion in this matter that he can discover no rules.
There are no relative pronouns. The verbal root alone with-
out any suffix, though pcL is generally used, makes a relative com-
bination! thus —
Ke til gu'pu.
My things steal man. .^
The man who stole my things.
Tarn ching mi.
Shepherd man.
The shepherd.
Ken ka*vo ml.
By me struck man.
The man I struck.
Nang-in ken-gom-d na-pe methal a-mang-tai.
You by me near to you give gun it lost is.
The gun you gave me is lost.
There is also a form in a, as—
Na-khu-d methal yu-d hoi-ham 1
Your village in gun sell-er who is ?
Who sells guns in your village ?
It is to be noticed, as Sir Charles Lyall has pointed out to me,
that the adjective or participle precedes the noun it qualifies
or explains, in relative clauses, a construction which is also found
in Mikir. Another point to be noted is that the pronominal prefixes
ka, na, a, which are not used with adjectives but are used with
nouns and verbs, are employed with the verbal relative. This fact
may afford a clue to the real nature of the verb in this group
of languages, audit certainly serves to distinguish the Kuki-Chin
dialects (except Methe) * from the other memb^s of the group.
If we r^ard the verbal root as a noun, we find a * formal ' reason
for the employment of these pronominal prefixes and an explana-
tion of many of the difficulties which the peculiar structure of the
so-called verb has originated.
The suffixes le^ ^d,t and yong have a copulative forcej as— •
Nang le ama le fakhaf na^he^vi.
You and he and one you are.
You and he are just alike.
* i I— ■ ■ — . '. - ■ ■ . ■ ■ ... ^
• (Maniptiri).
t £ef erence has been made to the fact that to is attached to the direct object oaie or
aoousatiie whea ppecial eoiphafiifl is re^^uired* Sec page 9 9upra.
Mi yong shd yong na-vef-i-nte.
Men and animals and you see will.
Tou will see men and animals.
Pol to thing to hin-chou-in.
Straw and wood and hither move.
Bring straw and wood here.
Other suflB.xes are —
A'H'Jcdi between. This may be derived from the root
km, to fasten, as —
Mol'd mol a-ki'hd tuilung ahi.
Hill to hill fastening river there is.
There is a river between the hills.
If my derivation is correct, the idea is not wanting in
a logical basis. Ki means together, see page 26.
Kom-dy near. Sung-d-Shung-o-va, within, inside.
Pdm-d, outside. Chung-d, on.
Ndng-dy after. Noi^d^ under.
Seng-a, towards (cf. hin).
It will be observed that they are all in the locative case.
In the Thado language the order of the words in a sentence is
fixed, though in common speech some departure is not unasual,
especially when the employment of postpositions renders the
meaning perfectly clear.
The order is, first the subject, and last the verb. Between
these two principal parts of the sentence come the indirect object,
the direct object, and adverbs in the order named. The subject
and object in a sentence may be a simple noun, or a pronoun, or
a relative sentence, or even a verbal noun. Adjectives invariably
follow the nouns they qualify. Verbal phrases connoting time,
condition, purpose, or concession precede the main sentence, as
also sentences reporting speech which are marked by the use of
the participle shein, saying. The following sentences affo«rd
examples of the rules stated above : —
KSn ning-kum-a ka-vo-pd na-khu ahem hao-id^len-dy lot
khat yainin a-ld-pi-tai.
I last year in I strike man your village rich cattle big
from buffalo one yesterday he stolen has.
The man I beat last year yesterday stole a buffalo from
the chieftain who established your village.
Mao-8d'pu ha-Jci^mu^ndmri aM-in Sahek nangta hin
Rich cattle father I mutually see wish sayii^ Sahib you
hither called has.
The Sahib says he wants to see the chief and calls you.
Amd a-hung-hi'le^ hdn ka-lung Mng-i-'nie*
He he come not if, I angry shall be..
I sl^ll be apr^y if he, does, not opme.
The constructiou with such verbs as mQ^ to se^e, tSnh to know
is notable.
They requii^ the dependent veyb to be in the simple root, as—
Ken mi thum methal a pH ka-H-^mu'tai.
I men three guipis they c^irry, I seen have,
I have seen, thr^ i^eu carrying gunsu
JiUiii sut na tem-^mf
Writing make you know ?
Do you know, how to write ?
The construction of verbs njeafuing • to try/ * to^empt^* * to
endeayowj,' h^s heqn disqussed above, page 27. .
Interrogative Sentences.
As in Manjipuri, interrogative sentences are of 'two kinds,, those
introduced by aii interrogative particle, what, why, where, etc., and
those not so introduced, or the case may be put in a different way.
Some questions, such as those introduced by an interrogative
particle, require an extended answer, other questions may be
answered by a simple * yea ' or ^ nay.' It must be remembered
that there are no words in Thado foi * yes ' or * no,* a fact which
influences the form of the question. Ii^ Thfido, a« in Manipuri,
the difference is signaHsed idio^matioally by the rule which irequiiw
that in sentences of the second order, i.0.9 thoi^ not introducell by
an interrogative particte or not requiring an extended answer^ the
verb should be duplicated, one form in the positive intertc^ativa
9lvA the other in the negative iicitert(^<iYe toxmi aa-^
Nan^ hoi'd na-chim ?
You wheie to jf bu going ?
Where aye you goiug to?
^ Wang JPhaiiird na-ch^-ham m-ifherlu-hamf
You'Mahipur to you gomg you not goiibg ate ?
^re you going to Manipur or not ?
An smparenl^ hat not I think & real, es:oeption to this rule id
presented in the sentence Na-khu-d i-cha-n pi gamla-m ? which
means * How far is it to your village ?' It is in nay o^ipion a con-
traction for the sentence * Is it far to your village bv a si;nall
amount (or by a large amount)? * Vhd * is the diminutive, while
pt is the magnitive suffix, and n is the suffix 6!f the agent of
instrumental case.
The use of adversative sentences in order to eff6ct a bompari*
Bon has been noted under the hdad of adjei^tiVes.
Participles are freely used, thus obviating difficulties whiol^
Would otherwise arise from the paucity of Conjunctions in the
All speech is reported direct, thus avoiding the cbhfusion
which arises from the maze of pronouns in the third person which
is found in languages where indirect or oblique nai*ratioii is the
rule. The last point to be noted is the extreme laxity of usage
with regard to the past and present tenser- Jt is necessary
therefore to employ the particle jfou wit|;i tdj the past, tense
ending whenever it is desired to emphasise the completion of the
Verbal action.
Nearlj^ all words in Thado are ihohosyllables, land it is generally
possible to discover by comparisbn thb separate meaning of the
component syllables in polysyllabic words. The following words
will help to indicate the methods of formation :—
P6n-in (po/i, doth, in, housfe), tettt
Me 16 {me^ fire, lo medicina)^ gunpowder*
La-kft {lil; hbftdi ftfi obvfet), iimbr^lltt.
GQ-sheni (go, ti&iiibod, ihm, to th&fee), the bftinbdo pipos.
Thing-yung (tUii^, it(i(A, j/uhif, sir'iltght ot per^endidu-
Ihing-ku {thing, wood, H, cover), bark of a tree*
Thing-kung {thing, wood, kUng, tollow), box.
Tui-dung [itii, water, dm^ {of. iH, deep), river]*
Tui-len {ttM, TTafe^i ISffi irfg)^ tifi».
In-ne-l6 [in, house, nS, beloW^ {in-h^i t^ifef), td, iotj
|h6n-hlut yhdn ^df, »iinga) in hint, to enter], to dip in.
Ton-kang {tbu, fly, kmg^ mosquito), mosquito.
* The a is short 6ltt«n< See page 2<
J a
Ken yingle Phaibi-a ohi-tangi.
I tomorrow Manipur to go will.
I will go to Manipur tomorrow,
Nang Phaibi-a na-chim ?
Tou Manipur to you going are ?
Are you going to Manipur ?
Ama wang Phaibia achi-tai (or 'a-cLe-tave ').
He Manipur to he gone has.
He has gone to Manipur.
Ken (or *ke-hon') mi thum ka-mu-tai (or * ka-mu-tave').
We men three we seen hare.
"We have seen three men.
Ama-h6n methal a-po-re.
They gun they carrying were.
They were carrying guns.
Na-khu-a methal yti-a koi ham ?
Tour village in gun selling who is ?
Who sells guns in your village ?
Nang-in sumsala melo hoi-a na-cho-ham ?
Tou caps fire medicine (powder) where you buying are ?
Where do you buy caps and powder ?
Na khu-5 in iya ham ?
Tour village in houses how many there are ?
How many houses are there in your village ?
Na khu-kom-a ibi sha umam ?
Tour village neighbourhood in what animals there are ?
What animals are there in the neighbourhood of your village ?
Na khu-a konin Phaibi yan ni iya a-kha-gidem ?
Tour village to between Manipur night day how many resting
there are ?
How many days' and nights' journey is your village from Mam-
pur ?
Nangin ati mea na-w6-m-em, le-a lia-vu-y-ui-n em ?
Tou dead fire in you bum earth in you bury ?
Do you burn or bury the dead ?
Tuktim na-chang a-pha-m ? Ningkum nachang a-pha-m ?
This year your crop good ? Last year your crop good ?
Was your crop good this year ? Was last year s crop good ?
Was this year's crop better than the crop of last year? (second
Kehon in thing-in ka-sa-we.
We houses vroo6, by we building are.
We build our houses of wood.
Nang Phaibi-a na-ohe-nom em ?
Tou Manipur to you go wish ?
Do you wish to go to Manipur ?
Nang Phaibi-a na-chi-yo-na-natem ?
Tou Manipur to you go able are ?
Are you able to go to Manipur ?
Ken Phaibi-a ka-chi-yo-nangi.
I Manipur to I go able shall be.
I shall be able to go to Manipur.
Nang Phaibi-ana-ohe-Io-di(ng) ham ?
You Manipur to you go will not be ?
Will you not go to Manipur ?
Ken Phaibi-a ka-ohe-ta-p6.
I Manipur to I go have not.
I have not gone to Manipur.
Ken Phaibi-a-ka-che-po-ng-ka-te.
I Manipur to I go not will I indeed.
I will not go to Manipur (emphatic).
Ken Phaibi-a ka-ohi-po-nge.
I Manipur to I go will not,
Nang ken-kom-a hui-cha ne-p5-na-na-tem ?
You me to dog you give you will ?
Will you give me a dog ?
Nang ken-kom-a hui-cha ne-pe-lo-di(ng)-ham ?
You me to dog you give not will ?
Will you not give me a dog ?
Nang na-hung-you-di(ng)-hi-nam ?
Tou you come able will be ?
Will you be able to come ?
Nang na-hung-n5m-em ?
Tou you come wish ?
Do you wish to come ?
Nang na-hung-n5m-hi-em ?
You you^^come wish not ?
Do you not wish to come ?
Ken ka-hung-le, ken nang-to ki-mu-na-hete.
I I come if I you I see will.
If I come^ I will see you.
Ken ka-hung-hi-le, ken nang-to kl-mii-po-ndS,
I I come not if, I you I see not will.
If I do not come, I will not see you.
Ken PhaibI-5 ka-cbi-lo-le, ken nang-to ka-man-pO-ngS.
I Manipur to I go not if I you I arrest not will.
If I do not go to Manipur I will not arrest yousi
Nang ama na-mat-hi-le, a-pa bin k5*ta-ven.
You him you arrest not if, nis father here calL
If you do not arrest him, call his father.
Nang-til gu-p5 na-mut-le, ken nang-gomi lups khat ka-JS-iigS*
tai. •
Your things stealing man you arrest if I you to rupee one I give
If you arrest the man who stole your thingSi I will give you a
Methal kangthol noi-a koi-in.
Gun bed under put.
Put the gun under the bed.
Na-khu-a methal a-um-you-si lor-na pu-vin*
Your village in guns being all Peeking bringi
Search and bring all the guns in your village.
Nang chl na-oho-ntira-le, hekom-a na:ohang-na-te.
You salt you buy wish if, here you get you will.
If you wish to buy salt you will get it here.
Yingle che-na-ding, gi-wai homtin.*
Tomorrow go in order to, efforts make.
Prepare to go tomorrow.
Mol lam-t5 a-him ? Lam to a-hi,
Hills steep are ? Steep are.
Are the hills steep ? They are steep.
Nang laili sut-na-tem-em ? Ka-tem-p5-i.
You writing make you know ? I know not.
Do you know how to write ? I do not k^ow.
Nang na-su-tem-n5m-em ? Ka-n5m-p5-i.
You you make know wish ? I wish not.
Do you wish to learn ? I do not.
Nang kum iya na-hl-ta-em ?
You year how many you been hare ?
How old are you ?
f Ki-wai ho (to endeaTOar)«
Na-min i hi-am ?
Yonr name what is ?
"What is your name ?
Ka-yi um-tam ?
Tour wife been has ?
Ha\re you a wife ? [Note that this is applicable only when speak-
ing to a man, but if u>ed to a woman, it would mean Have yoa
/ a husband ?' The meaning of yf is therefore * spousa*]
A-hoi-em ? A-hoi-tai.
She pretty is ? She pretty is.
Is she pretty ? She is pretty.
Ama man iya na-pi-t5-em ?
Her price how much you given have ?
How much did you give for her ?
Tampi na-pi-em ? levep na-pl-em ?
Much you given have ? Little you given have ?
Did you give much or little ?
Na-hon thiba na-chep-um ?
You pipe you suck ?
Do you sittofce a pipe ?
Damum hoi-a na-cho-ham ?
Tobacco where you buy ?
Where do you buy tobacco ?
Tange-me ? honge-me ?
Dear is ? cheap is ?
Is it dear or cheap ?
Hlai-hi-in, ding-in.
Run, not stand. ^
Do not run away, stand stilL
Ki-cha-hi-in, Kennang-t5 ka-vet-nOm-e,
Fear not, I you I look wish.
Do not be af mid, I wish to look at yofu*
Ka-ti-Ql a-8h5-e,
My sweat it hot is,
I am hot (this is paralleled liy the Mioiipuri phtase '' humSng
saore") .
Ka-ta a-chol-ta-nge.
My body it tired will have been.
I shall be tired. [Note the use of the fulare perfect in place of
the simple future.]
Beng-lii a-yan^-i, a-ghi-p5-e.
Loads these they light are they heavy not are.
These loads are light, they are not heavy.
Nang mele pao na-het-lem ? Ka he (t)-i.
Yon Manipuri language you know ? I know.
Do you know Manipuri ? Yes.
Ken gu-chapaphattok ka-pi-ta-ve.
I stealing man jail I given have.
I have put the thief in jail.
Hao-sa-len a-lu hang-ta-ve.
Chief great angry has been.
The great chief has been angry.
Nunga-nQ ki-jat-sha-hi-in.
Girls afraid make not.
Do not frighten the girls.
Nangin ken-koma tankha som na-ba(t)i.
You me to rupees ten you owe.
You owe me ten rupees.
Ken nang-kom-a a-n!-she-in makhai makhai ka-p€-nge.
I you to daily half half I give will.
I will give you eight annas daily.
Ke-ma tu-hi a-hi-cha-chan um-in.
My word obeying be.
Obey my orders.
A-sho-kal-shen ni iya-n a-minna-sha-am ?
Birth after days how many in its name you make ?
In how many days after birth do you give the name ?
Mao-gi-pui-pha-in, na-hon hlapi na-sa-um ?
Women taking time at you songs you make ?
When you marry do you sing songs ?
Ken ttisim ka-he(t)-nom-e.
I legends I know wish.
I wish to know your legends.
Nang na-bat tangka i-bol-a na-pe-lu-ham.
You you owe rupees why you give not have.
Why have you not paid the money you owe ?
Ka-wai-be. Ka pe-you-po-i.
I poor am. I pay cannot.
I am poor and cannot pay.
Hla Hi you-u-le, nang na-bat tangka na-pe-ding-na-hi.
Months two finished when, you you owe rupees you pay must.
Tou will have to pay at the end of two months.
Ama lim na-he (t)-tem ?
Him appearance you know ?
Do you know his appearance ?
Che-tai-te. Let us go. Bol-tai-te. Let us do.
Ton-lai-in ka-pu ka-pen laili a-het-tai.
Paten-in sha-un a-peu, hui-chan a-hung-in sha-un ana-hlO-
mang-tan ke-hon, laili ka-he(t)-p5-i.
Formerly our grandfathers our ancestors writing knew.
Deity animal skin giving, dog coming, skin seizing spoiling, we.
"Writing we know not.
Formerly our ancestors knew how to write. The deity gave them
skins, but a dog came and. destroyed them, and we do not know
how to write.
Nang noushen na-shu-tam [or tavern]?
You baby you bear have ?
Have you borne a child ?
Gamla-m, gamla-hi-em, na khu-a ? A-gamla-p5-e.
Far is it far is it not your village ? To far not is.
Is it far or not to your village ? It is not far.
Hiche khu a-len-em ? Hucheho khti a-len-em ?
This village big is ? That village big is ?
Is this village bigger than that ?
Hiche khti a-len-ta-ve.
This village it big has been.
This is a very big village. »
Ken ni-ni ni-thtim-ni methal ka-chang-kang-ka-te.
I day two day three two gun I get shall am.
I shall get some guns in two or three days.
Nume tat-la pasal-hu a-man-you-a tangka som nga chang-kando.
Woman killed man him arrest able on rupees fifty get will.
The man who arrests the murderer of the woman will get fifty
Ke tenggol a-mang-ta-i. Ga-hol-un.
My stick it lost has been. Search for it.
My stick is lost. Look for it.
Tan-in na-mang a-tim-em ?
Night in your dream it is ?
Do you dream at night ?
Nang i-bol a Iambi na-bol-lu-ham ?
You why road you done not* hare ?
Why hare you not done the road ?
Methal mez a-kom koi-in.
Gun table near place.
Put the gun near the table.
Methal mez a-chung-*a koi-in.
Gun table on put.
Put the gun on the table.
Na-kbu a-sungova chi ida pha-lti ham ?
Your village within go why good not is ?
Why i8 it forbidden to enter your village ?
Nang she a-le-ta-ve. Nang she a-le-po.
You say it true has been. You say it true not.
What you say is true. What you say is not true.
Methal ch5 a-pha-po-e.
Gun buy it good not is.
It is Dot allowed to buy guns.
Me ma-shem-in. Thing to pol to tam-pi bin ohou-in.
Piremake wood and straw and much here bring.
Make the fire up. Bring plenty of wood and straw.
Thing a-kot-le, me keti-kou-you-p6-nde.
Wood damp if, fire rub able not will be.
You will not be able to light the fire if the wood is damp.
Na-hat chan-ohan-ni che-in.
You strength up to go.
Go as quickly as you can.
A-ying-da-le, kumai ka-bol-inde. Hla a-wat-le,ka-bol-t6-p5-ndS.
Dark if show I make will. Moon shine if I make able not will
If it is dark, I will give the show. If there is a moon I shall not
be able to give it.
I-na-lo-T-a ytl na-h5n-am P
What you taking wine you make ? What medicine by ?
How (from what) do you make zu ?
Tu-hi-yai bi at pha-ta-m ?
Now grass cut good is ?
Is it right to cut grass now ?
Noushen a-sho-le, nume a-ti-le, noushen gi-wa ngai-am ?
Babe it bearing if woman she die if, babe rear customary U, ?
If a woman die in childbirth, is it customary to rear the child ?
Mi khat-ta-in a-gi-wa-e. Mi khat-ta-in a-tat-lu-ve.
Men some rear. Men some they kill .
Some people rear it. Some kill it.
Nang an na-ne-you-tav-em ?
You food you eat finished have ?
Have you finished eating your food ?
Hla iya you-ta-le, lou hlou pat-te-indem.
Months how many finished having if, fields cultivate fit will be.
In how many months it will be fit to cultivate your fields ?
Mol-len-a na-hon a-kum-se-in lou khat na-bol-am ?
Hill great in you yearly field one you make ?
Do you cultivate in the same spot every year in the hiUs ?
Ken na-khu stingova ka-tim-nom-pOre.
I your village within I remain wish not am.
I do not widi to stay in side your villagCi
Ken ama-gom-a ta khat ka-dong-nom-e.
I him to word one I ask wish am.
I wish to ask him one question.
Ama nang-gom-a tangka iya a-bat-lem ?
He you to rupees how many he owes ?
How many rupees does he owe you ?
Ama tangka la kam iya hi-ta-m ? A-shot-ta-i.
He rupees take years how many been has. It late is.
How long ago did he borrow the rupees ? Long ago.
TQnin wo yunte, ka-tl. Ka-kho a-shi-i.
Today rain fall will, I say. My body cold is.
I think rain is coming. I feel cold.
Hiohe tuidung a-tu-e. Kehon ka-pal-you-po-nde.
This river it deep is. We we cross able not will.
This river is deep. We shall not be able to cross.
Ken gamla ka-chi-kon, nang na-bat tangka na-pe-lo-le, ken
nanggoma dandi ka-pe ding ka-hi.
I far I go before you you owe rupees you give not if, I you to
punishment I give must be.
If you do not pay the money you owe before I go away, I ahall
have to punish you.
Tingle ke-hon tui-len ka-pal-ding-ka-hi.
Tomorrow we water big (river) we cross shall we are.
Tomorrow we shall have to cross a big river.
Ken na-khti-a ka-om-pe-in, methal a-um-you-si ape-vin. Tunin
methal na-pe-ule. Ken i^macha ka-bol-p5-nge. Yingle khu-a
inethal a-tim-po-i, na-ti-le, hao-sa-len-in, sakhi hmnpi-ya
a-khetding a-hi. Nunga methal ka-mut-le, ken tangka tampi
I your village in I being time in guns being able or complete up
to give'. Today guns you give if, I anything I do not will.
Tomorrow viUas^e in guns they be not you say if chiefs.
Withness tiger tooth they bite will they are afterwards guns I
seize if, I rupees many take shall.
Give up the guns while -I am in your village. If you give up the
guns today I will do nothing. Tomorrow the chiefs must swear
that there are no guns in the village. If afterwards I get ^
gun, I will fine you heavily.
Ka-ta a-chol-ta-i, she -in yu ka-don-nom-e.
My body it weary is saying wine I drink wish am,
I want to drink some zu because I am tired.
Ka-h5n na-hlam-ule, ken ka-vet-nom-e.
Tou you dance if I I look wish am.
I want to see you dance.
Na-hon hlapi na-sa-u-le, ka-ngai-nom-§.
Tou songs you make if, I listen wish am.
I want to hear your songs.
Fasal ni thingkting li-a a-tou-ban-e. HumpI a-hung a-hi. Pasal
ni a-ki-cha-a-he-ve. A-hlai-tai. Humpin a-del-e.
Men two wood hollow shade in they sit. Tiger it come it is.
Men two they afraid they are. They run away are. Tiger it
Two men were sitting in the shadow of a box and a tiger comes.
They are afraid and run away. The tiger pursues them.
Tainin na-khil-hong-pa a-min i-hi-am.
Yesterday you with coming man his name what is,
What is the name of the man who came with you yesterday.
Pon-in sha-na-ding a-hoi lai ga-hol-tin.
Cloth house build for to good place search.
Ix)ok for a good place to pitch the tent.
Tunin nang na-himg-shot-ta-ve.
Today you you come late have been.
You arrived late today.
Hiohe gammang a-ying b€she-tai. Ken waohS ki-mQ-te-p5-nde, •
This jungle dense excessive is. I birds I see may not will be.
This jungle is too dense. I shall not be able to see the birds. '
Wacha a-bolen a-leng-tai.
Birds all they flown have.
The birds have all flown away.
Mol-a-mol a-ki-ka tuilung khat a-hi.
Hill and hill between river one it is.
There is a river between the hills.
Lei-chung-a na-ki-shen-hlu-le, na-khen bong-inte.
Creeper from you fall if, your leg lame will be.
If you faU while on a bridge, you will be lame (you will break
your leg).
Me ga-ti-in. Til dom-in. Til kingnou a-te-tai.
Fire blow load take up load put down permitted is.
Blow the fire, take up your loads you may rest (put down the
Huche hu nume-nti ang5ng i-bol-a pom-a-ham ?
That women neck why swollen it is ?
Why is that woman's neck swollen ?
Ibi hla ta-in, bu na-ki-tQ-ntem ?
What month occurring in seed (paddy) you sow will ?
In, what month will you sow the paddy ?
Iti pha ta-le, ba na-ki-tti-ntem ?
What time occurring if seed (paddy) you transplant will ?
At what time will you transplant the paddy ?
Ibi hla pen-in bu na-ki-at-intem ?
What month time in, paddv you cut will ?
In what month will you cut the paddy ?
Hiche Iambi hoi kom-a vi-ge-intem ?
This road whither lead will ?
Whither does this road lead ?
Nang ibi til na-hol-ham ?
You what thing you search are ?
What are you looking for ?
Mipa hu hla-ta-v-in. Ken ka-la-nom-ta-i.
Man him release. I release wish have am.
XiCt the man go, I have decided to let him go.
A-you-ta-L Ken an ne-you-ta-i.'^ Nl iyan in sim you-ta-v-intem.
It finished has is I food eat finished have. Days how many
houses count finished have will be.
It is finished. I hatve finished eating my [food. In kow many
days will the houses be completely counted.
Pat'thing-lang-a a-ke.
Cotton wood side it grows.
Cotton grows on the hill side.
Lengpihi ibi bol ibi sha hi-am ?
Earthquake what do what make is it ?
"What causes an earthquake ?
Cham khat a-um-le, ken"amagom-a tu ka-she-inde.
Moment one he being if I him to word I say wilL
I will speak to him in a moment.
Ken na-khu-a ka-hting-khit-ding-ka-hi.
I your village to I come back must I am.
1 shall have to return to your village.
Nang yainin na-khl-shil-em ?
Ton yesterday you bathe did ?
Did you bathe yesterday ?
Nang-in i-bol-a ghal-lu na-shat-tan ham ?
You why enemies heads you cut off ?
Why do you cut off the heads of your enemies ?
Hiche laili Fhaibi-a ga-ki-la-en. Nang-to4o-a-pha-ta gi-la»na^ia
This writing Manipur to take you medicine good^et you wilL
Take this letter to Manipur and you will get good medicine.
Hla she-a;nang na-lu na-vo-(y) ingem?
A month saying you your head you shave ?
Do you cut your hair every month ?
Hiche pa hti nang samti a-la-te-(y)em?
This man your comb he take may ?
May this man use your comb ?
Ama ningkum-a-om-na a-chou-u-tai.
He last year he being thence he moved away has.
He has moved away from the place where he was hsb year.
Tou-kang a-tim-po-i : tou-pum a-um-po-i-wat tam-pi a-Qm-e.
Mosquito it is not, sandflies they are not : leeches many they are.
There are no mosquitoes or sandflies but many leeches.
Thunin yu kam-hi-in. Na ne-mul Ba-(v) inte.
Today wine drunk not (be). Your ohin hair long will fae»
Do not be drunk today. Your beard will grow long.
Ea vo kit-e ken ka-hlup-n5m-e.
My head pain is I sleep I wish.
My head aches, I wish to go to sleep.
Ama tukum khajona a-pe-tavem ?
He this year revenue he paid has ?
Has he paid this year's revenue ?
Na-khti-a koi hi a-ti-am ? Na khu-a yainin'a-ti koi ham ?
Your village in who he dead is? Your village in yesterday, he
dead who is ?
Who is dead in your village ? Who died in your village yesterday?
Ntime-nu sel noi a-loi-i.
Woman cow udder she draw is.
The woman is milking a cow.
Nahon dapi hoi-a na-cho-ham ?
You gongs where you huy are ?
Where do you huy gongs ?
Nang le ama le (nang yong ama yong) takhat na-he-(v)i.
You both and he and (you both he and) one you are.
You and he are just alike.
Na-mang-a tui na-mu-le, na-chang pha-nte na-tx-(v) em ?
Your dream in water you see, if your crop good will be you say ?
If you see water in a dream, do you believe that your crops will be
good ?
Hla iya-n cha-pang noi a-chep-da-dem ?
Month how many in infant breast it suck cease permitted is P
In how many months will the child be weaned ?
Hiche hu a-ne-beshe.
This it small too much is.
This is too small.
Nang na-dai^ cha-am? Ka-dang a-cha-tai,
You your thirst is ? My thirst is.
Are you thirsty ? I am thirsty.
Ni som ni a-you-ta-le ken Phaibi-a ka-che-khit-ding-ka-hi.
Day ten day they finish have if I Manipur to I go back must
I must go back (return) to Manipur at the end of ten days.
Na*hon ida kina-na-he(v) em? Ama ke lou e-la-pi-tai^
You why quarrel you are ? He my land seized has.
Why are you quarrelling ? He has seized my land.
Thma-hon a-ki-cham-tave (A-keo-te-tai).
They they mutually level are. (They mutually agreed are.)
They hare made an arrangemexit, (They are agreed.)
Mao gi pui pha-in, hlangval a-ki-bon-ngai-am P
Woman marrying time at bachelors they mutually wrestle ousto^
mary are ?
Do the bachelors wrestle by custom at the marriage of a woman P
Ting-le ni-aho-m5-sangin ka-che-ng-ka-te.
Tomorrow sun birth before I go will I will.
Tomorrow I shall start before sunrise.
Hiche khu in me-a ka-he ni iya hi-tam ?
This village house fire in bum days how many been have.
How many days ago was this village burnt ? [Note— They say
the houses of the village are burntij
Nang in na-sim-you-ta (v) em ?
You houses you count finish have ?
Have you finished counting the houses P
Siche lam a-di-(n) am ? A-di-i.
This road it correct is ? It correct is.
Is this the right road ? It is.
Ka-shal-lu a-bon-chan me na-ka-tai.
My granaries they all fire burnt have.
All my granaries have been burnt.
Lamlen khQ me ka-na hla ni a-hi-tai.
Jungle village fire burnt months two it has been.
The village jungle was burnt two months ago.
Ken yingle in ka-sim-pan-inde.
I tomorrow houses I count begin will.
I will begin to count the houses tomorrow.
Nangin i-bol-a na-yi-nu na-ki-khen-ta-(v) em ?
You what doing for your wife you mutually separated have ?
Why have you separated from your wife ?
Na-khu-a ka-hung-ma-sangin.,Sj,Na-khu-a ka-hung-you-in.
Your village to I coming before. Your village to I coming finish*
Before I came to your village. After I came to your village.
Hiche pasal hu a-lu hang nom-beshe.
This man he wrathful wish exceeds.
This man is much too given to anger.
Hiche pa kom-a an a-ni-she-in na-pe-ding me ima bol-Qn.
This man near to rice daily, you give shall arrangements make.
Arrange to give this man rice daily,
Matu am-ta-po-i, le-mang-tan.
Use was not take, destroy.
This is of no use. Throw it away.
Na-ya cha-hi-in. Ka-ya a-cha-tai.
Tour shame shame not. My shame it shames.
Bo not be ashamed. I am ashamed.
Ama-h5n paten a-kul-hlum-na-diBg a-chS-ta-ve.
They Deity worship in order to they gone have.
They have gone to worship the Deity.
Ama i-h6l-a lam-kha a-ding-em ?
He what doing in road divide he stand is ?
"Why is he standing where the roads divide ?
Nang sot-pin na-na-ta-i. Nx ni nx thum iJ a-pha-you-p5-nde.
You long you ill heen have, day two day three in good (we
able not will be.
Ton have been ill for a long time, and you will not be able to be
well in two or three days.
Hiche khQ a-len-pl ; adang khu neo-cha-cha.
This village big big other villages small small small,
This is much the biggest village.
Tu-ktim-a lou yong ning-kum-a lou yong khat khat a-hi.
This year in field and last year in field one one they are.
Our cultivation this year is in a different place from last year.
(It is also possible to say chom chom a-hi, are separate, as in the
phrase na-chtim chom-in ding-tan, you separating separating
stand, stand apart )
Tu-kum-a yti-cha tam-pi a-hung-in ken-chang chan a-ne-you-tan
chang ka-wai beshe.
This year rats many coming, our rice eating feeding completely
rice we troubled exceedingly.
We are in diflGlculties as to rice this year, bee^use the rats came
and ate it up.
Aman a-she tu yong nangin na-she tu yong a-ki-mat-po-e.
He say word and you say word and they mutually seize not are.
His statement and yours do not agree.
Nangin Sahib kangjS a-vo na-vet-nom-em ?
You Sahib ball strike you look wish are ?
Do you like to see the Sahib play polo ?
Nang lou la-pl-pa min i hi-am ?
Tour field take man name what is ?
What is the name of the man who took your field ?
Na-ghil khel pha*-(t) in, lengpihi a-um-le, ken chang ti wai
b€she-inte na-ti-(v) em ?
You hungry being time in earthquake it being our food trouble
excessive will be, ycu say ?.
Do you believe that if an earthquake occurs while you are
hungry, rice will be very scarce ?
Koi-pa-kom-a laili na-pe-di (ng)-ham ?
Who man near to letter you give will ?
To whom will you give the letter ?
Ka-yi-nu pon hoi-ta-in khonff a-he-ta-i.
My wife cloth finely weave she know has.
My wife knows how to weave cloths nicely.
Na-gam-a pat a-ke a-pha-i.
Your district in cotton it grow it good is.
Cotton grows well in your district.
Vubang a-ta-i. Dai-tui tam pl-a-tim-e.
Frost it fallen has. Dew much it is.
There is a frost. There is much dew.
Hla hlui-a ken shaghi khat ka-kap-ta-i ?
Month past in I deer one I shot have.
I shot a deer last month.
Hla a-ti-le, ken Phaibi-a ka-che-ng ka-te.
Moon it die if (or when) I Manipur to I go will I am.
Next month (at the end of this month) I shall have to go to
Adang koi koi ken-gom-a tu a-she-nom-uvam ? Hung-she-in.
Other who who me near to word say he say wishes ? Come say.
Who else wishes to speak to me ? Come and speak.
A-ki-but-le, koi na-hat-lam ?
They mutually wrestling if, who you strong was ?
Who won in the wrSstling ?
Ni iya-n in sim-you-ta-(v) intem ?
Day how many in houses count finish have will ?
In how many days will the counting of the houses be finished ?
Na-chit-le, ibi na-she-ham. Na chit le, pha-nte, na-ti (v) em ?
You sneeze if, what you say, you sneeze if, good will be you say ?
What do you say when you sneeze ? Do you think it lucky to
sneeze ?
Ka-phat-vet a-su-ket-pa koi*hi-am ?
My face look he cause break man who is ?
Who caused my looking glass to break, or who broke my looking
glass ?
• 'a' long if unsuported by the euphonic consonant.
Siki thtim a-pe-in ama sumbel a'cho-tave.
Quarters three he giving he cooking pot he bought.
He bought a cooking pot for twelve annas. •
Ken tenggol na-sti-bot-le, ka-lu hang-inte.
My stick you cause break it, I angry shall be.
I shall be angry if you break my stick.
Ken amahon methal ka-choi-ta-(v) in, amahon ka-lung a-dong-
I their guns I took because they me hate.
They hate me because I took away their guns.
Na-lting dong-hi-an. Ka-lung dong-hi-un.
Yourself worry not. Myself worry not.
Do not bother yourself. Do not hate me.
A-khma-pa koi hi-am a-tita ?
They quarrel men who is first ?
Who quarrelled first ?
Anu nunga a-khina-pa koi hi-am ?
After after quarrelling man who is ?
Who quarrelled afterwards ?
Ke hing-masen, ken nang-ma tuhi a-hi-cha-chan tim-in-kate.
I live up to. I your order obedient shall be I.
I will obey your orders carefully as long as I live. (Note the
intensive effect of the reduplication giving the sense of * care-
fully y ' scrupulously.')
Nang-in na-mat you-to-pa koi hi-am ?
You by you arrest able not man who is ?
Who is the man you could not arrest ?
Ama-ho a-jiat-na-ding pasal ni a-che-tai,
Him they arrest for men two they gone have.
Two men have gone to arrest him.
Ken tangka ki-bong-hemin ka-hop-tai.
I rupees equally I divided have.
I have divided the money equally.
Na-khu-a ntime nu tam-indem, pasal tam-indem ?
Your village in women many will be, men many will be ?
Are there more women than men in your village ?
A-hung-lo-pa a-min i hi-am ?
He come not man his name what is ?
What is the name of the man who did not come ?
Nang-in hiohe pasal hi ntime a-vo na-mit-in na-ki-mu-ta-(v) era ?
You by this man this woman he stnke your eye with you seen
► have ?
Did you yourself see this man strike the women ?
Tu-ve-in wo a-yu-po-e : a-yti wo a-hling-am, a-hling-hi-am ?
Tip to now rain it fallen not has, it fallen rain it sufficient is it
not is ?
Up to now no rain has fallen. Is the rain which has fallen suffi-
cient or not ?
Aman wanoi ml a-ngai a-h3.
He all men customary he knows.
He knows what is usual (or what is right or what is polite).
Ying-ka-le* ni-hla-a sho-ni hltim-in aman ya a-don-e, thibu a-
Early sunrise, sun fall to-hot sun sleeping he wine he drinks, pipe
he sucks.
He drinks and smokes all day long (from dawn to sunset).
Ama khat yong a-hung-lo-le, ken biohar ka-bol-te-po-nde.
He one and become not if, I judgment I do able not will.
So long as both parties do not come, I shall not be able to try the
Ka-pen ka-pti ka-pa le-llhu a-sungova a-hung-pen a-hi.
Our ancestors, our grandfathers, our fathers, earth hollow it within
from they come ancestors they are.
Our ancestors came from a cave in the earth.
Na-kheng i-bol-a a-ki-bai-ta'(v) em ?
Your leg what doing with it lame has ?
Why are you lame ?
Tasipu a-cha-nu na-ki-chen-pi-ta-(v) em ?
Old man child girl you mutually running make have ?
Have you married the old man's daughter ? Lit, have you run off
with her ?
Tasipu a-cha-nu mou na-puita-(v) em ?
Old man his daughter wife you take have ?
Have you married the old man's daughter ?
Phaibi-a na-hting-in nang-in -ui-lung iyat ne-pal-ta (v) em ?
Manipur from you coming you by water deep how many you
cross have ?
How many rivers have you crossed on your journey from Mani-
pur ?
Aman i-bol-a lang-a tou-va-ham. Aman oi nan a-ti-tai.
He what doing for doolie in sitting is ? He stomach ill he died has.
Why is he sitting in a doolie ? He died of cholera.
Lei khat sunga ke til you-si dol-inte.
Basket one in my things all fit will.
All my things will go in one basket.
Hiche khU shel-pal a-ghen-ta-(v) e.
This village cattle fence it surrounded has been.
This village is surrounded by a fence against cattle (stockade).
Ama-hon sou a-dor-ta-(v) e.
They by panjis spread have.
They have put down panjis.
Tou-na-ding ama-hon phe a-pha-ta-(v)e.
Sit for they by mats they spread.
They have spread mats to sit down.
Na-ni hing-am ti-am ?
Thy mother-in-law alive is dead is ?
Is your mother-in-law alive or dead ?
Mol-a ka-kal-in ka-ta a-chol-po-nde, ka-ti om-i.
Hill on I climbing in, my body tired not will be, I say.
I do not think I shall be tired climbing the hill.
Na-keng ling-in a-sut-em ? A-bot -do-in.
Your foot thorn by it pierce is ? Pull out.
Has thorn pierced your foot ? PuU it out.
Khajona na-pe -da-ding a-hi-tai.
Revenue you give abstain will it has been.
You need not pay revenue.
A-khina-pa koi hi-am a-phel-a ?
They quarrel men who is he drove ?
Who parted the men who were quarrelling ?
Nang-in shaghi nting na-yui-te-na-em ?
You by deer after you follow able you are ?
Can you tracl^ a deer ?
Thinglanga ka-tim nom-tavem, phai-a ka-um nomta-rem ?
Hill side on, he wish have, plain in he wish have ?
Do you prefer to live on the hill or in the plain ?
Che-hen, che-tai-te.
Let them go, let us go.
Ken che-na-ding hla ni awat-tai.
I go in other months two wanting are.
There are two months before I go.
Ita wang pabeng pa-am ?
What sort flower bloom is ?
What sort of flower is that ?
Ibi na-bol-a na-ne-em ? Nang-in ibi na^yo-em ? nang lou shel-^
na-hlom ?
What you do in you eat are ? You by what you sell ? You by
cattle by field plough ?
How do you live ? What do you sell ? Do you plough with
cattle ?
Nang yainin tui-dung ne-pal-ta-rem, khong tim-am, pum urn-
am, leichung tim-am ?
You yesterday water you cross have ? boat was raft was came on
Did you cross a river yesterday ? Was there a boat or a raft or
a bridge?
Nakhu pha-ma-sangin nangin mol iya na-kal-u-na-tem ?
Your village arrive before you hills how many you climb will ?
How many hills have you to climb before you reach your village ?
Hiche hi ibi shen dana ibi eng da-na ham ?
This this was red colour ? What green colour is ?
What colour is this ? Eed or green ?
Nang na-tim-na he-kom-a na-khu na-shem kang iya hi-tam.
You your being from here your village you build generations how
many been has ?
How many generations ago did you build your village here ?
Mol-len sit lam-a ; moMen asa lam-a ; mol-len ahlang lam-a.
Hill big round side. Hill big high side on. Hill big below side on,
Eound the mountain. On the mountain. Below the mountain.
Ke ma kot kom-a lu-ktiku te-po-na-te.
My presence near in head covering cover able not will be.
It is not permitted to carry an umbrella in my presence.
Sang te-in. A nem-chan dom-tang.
High lift. Low place.
Lift it up. Put it down low.
Kum khat a-he, iyat-ve kuyet na-'bol'-ngai-am ?
Year one it is, how many times ghenna (wordiip) you do custo-
mary are ?
How many times do you do ghenna in a year ?
Ken ama-wang a-lim-lim ka-ki-mti-ta-po-e ?
I him his appearance appearance I see have not.
I have »ever seen him.
Na-chom-le, nang gamla na-chop-you-hemi ?
You jump if, you far you jump can ?
Are you good at the long jump ?
Cbe-na-ding phat a-hi-tai.
Go in order to, time it been has.
It is time to go.
Hoi-lam pasal hi-am ? A-dung sang-am ar-dung nem-am ?
What sort man is ? Appearance tall is, appearance short is ?
What sort of a man is he ? Is he tall or short ?
Nang yingle ken''(k) gom-a na-che-sab-ding na-hi.
You tomorrow me near to you go with must you are.
Tomorrow you will have to come with me.
Aghai (y) akhun a-ti-le, ahlan koi ham a bol-ding-a ?
Pregnant woman she die if, burial place who is he make must for ?
If a pregnant woman die, who has to dig the grave ?
Ahlan kon bol-tinte. — N.B. — [The form of the interrogative pro-
noun with the agent case affix, as in kon, is rare.]
Ama alung tim a-pha-beshe.
He his heart speech it good exceeding is.
He is a clever man.
Ka-mit-mu-a. [Lit., my eye seeing in, in my presence.]
Ken tengcha gamla ka-ko-tai. Nang shong gamla na-she-you-
I spear far I thrown have. You stone far you throw can.
I have thrown the spear a long way. You can throw the stone a
long way.
Hoi -a na-ge-di (ng)-ham? Nakhti pha-ma-sangin, yan ni iiya
na-ge-di (ng)-ham ?
Where you stay will ? Your village reach before, night day how
many stay you will ?
Where will you pass the night ? How many days and nights is
your village distant ?
[N.B. — Oe has exactly the naeaning of the Manipuri M, to
halt for the night when on a journey.]
Asa lama na-chen-ung ahlanga na-chen-ung ?
High side on your village is, around (meaning on the other side
of) your village.
Is your village on the top or on the other side of the hill ?
[N.B. — Tfng is a very rare form.]
Go-hu ga-phut-in. Silki ort-dim-in.
Bamboo that plant. Glass fill.
Plant the bamboo in straight. Till the glass.
A-hlun a-lti-chang a-suk-ai.
He falling his head he touched.
He fell and hurt his head.
Na-cha pasal ham nume ham ?
Your child boy Is girl is ?
Is your child a boy or a girl ?
Thado pao tu a-ghil-e.
Thado language word diflSculty is.
The Thado language is diflScult.
Kehon a-ti mi ka-wui-bebu-le, pasal a-ti-le, hla-pi ka-sawe.
We dead person we burying on man he die if, song we make.
When we bury any one if it be a man, we sing songs.
Nume a-ti-le, hlapi ka-sa-po-e. Hou-sa-len a-ti-le, lang-in,
Woman she die if, song we make not. Rich cattle great he die if
box in.
We do not sing songs when a woman dies. If a chieftain dies.
Ka-hot-ve thum-ve. Lang-leng-in ka-koi-u-ve. HIa khat you-ule.
We shake three times, box big in we place, month one finished
We shake him in a box thrice and put him in a big box and at the
end of a month.
Ttin-vi pha hi-da-nde a-ti-le, le-a ka-wui-ve pon-in a-lti yong.
Now indeed time he have shall say when, earth in we bury, cloth
in his head and
Saying now indeed is the time come, we bury him in the earth.
A-ghii yong ka-stin-ve.
His bones and we wrap.
And we wrap his head and bones in a cloth.
[It is clear from this specimen that the present form in ve or uve
when the insertion of an euphonic vowel is necessary, is the
habitual form of the present to be employed for the acts of
everyday life. Sou-sd means chief and its derivation is pro-
bably that given above. We may notice that ten in the combi'
nation Idng len has received a ^r in accordance with a rule of
consonantal harmony similar to that mentioned in the section page
3, relating to consonantal modifications. The use of the ^'s in the^
word hi-dd-nde is due to a similar cause.]
Ton-lai-in ka-pu ka-pa ka-pen le-ku a-sung-6-va a-um-e. Laili
Formerly our fathers our grandfathers it witbiQ OUT ancestor* earth;
cover tbey were. Writing Deity by.
A-na-pen, sha-un a-na-pen, ai-imtit-la-nia huichan a-na-hl5-mang.
He giving animal skin he giving, they sleeping dog by the taking
tai, hiche kal she-in ka-het-a-po-ve.
Has this time saying we know not.
Formerly our ancestors lived inside the earth. A Deity gave them
skins of animals and taufJtht them how to write. "W^hile they
were asleep a dog came and seized the skins and from that time
till now we have not known how to write.
This example gives a fair illustration of the way in which th^
participles are used to connect one sentence with another.
Ld'ku means literally earth cover, being derived from the words
Id earth, and ki^ to cover, U-ku therefore means cavern.
Mang is a neuter verb, meaning * to be spoilt' but there is often some
inaccuracy in the way these neuter verbs are used, though strict
usage would require the employment of a causative suffix.
The Tale of a Tub.
Fasal ni thing-ktin^ li-a a-to-ba-ne. Htimpi a-hung a-hi.
Men two wood hollow shade in they sitting where, tiger he come
he is.
Pasal ni a-ki-cha a-he-ve. A-hlai-tai. Hurnpin a-del-e.
Men two they afraid, they are they ran, tiger it pursues.
Htimpi thing kung noi-a a-khal-tai. Pasal ni thing-kung a-kiip.^
Tiger it wood hollow top on it climbed has. Men two wood hol-
low turn.
A-hai-tai. Htimpi-me khem khat a-dor-tai. Humpi me khem
They endeavour. Tiger tail bit one it stick out. Tiger tail bit
A-dor-e. Kan-i-te-a-ti ; a-kan-tai. Humpin thing-kung^
It sticks out, tie let us they say ; they have tied. Tiger wood hol-
A-pon hlai-ding a-ki-wo-tai a-pon a-hlai-pan-tai.
He carrying run to, he endeavours, he carrying, he run begun has.
Two men were sitting in the shade of a tub when a tiger came up.
They were afraid and ran, but the tiger pursued them and climbed
on to the tub. The two men succeeded in turning the tub over-
They said there is a bit of the tiger's tail sticking out. Let us
fasten it [or tie a knot in it], and they tied a knot in it. The tiger
straggled to carry the tub ofi and at last carried it away.
[^This ingenuods narrative was iised to illustrate the lantern slideH
which I was ib the habit of showing to the people when on toiir
among them. Kung is an interesting word, as it shows the
retention of the nasal sound, and is connected with the root ^C, td
cover. Anything that is covered may be regarded as aUo hollow,
and the combination produced the meaning ' tub.' Ki-wdy to endea-^
vour, to try, is also found as go. Pan to commence, may also be
noted. Dor^ to stick out, as in dom-dor, to lift out.]
(Taken from the Linguistic Survey Report^ Volume iiiy Part iii
|)age 71).
" Ka-pa ka-pu sei, ton-lain mi yause hula-hungkon
My father my forefather said, in early time people all Netherland in
a-um-e. Khongsai-le Maithai awol a-hai. Ama-hon del
they were. The Khongjais with the Manipuris friends they were.
ama-ho del a-kichu-honin ; a-ntin chem-in a-laya
They cloth disputed ; their mother dao with in the middle
a-tan-e. Maithai-pan khSngma a-saan-e. * A-nung a-thak-e '
cut. The Manipuris by haimang trees they cut. Footprint^ new
a-tin mi tampi a-nung-a a-che, cliucha Maithai tarapi
they saying people many afterwards they went, hence the Manipuris
a-hai-ye. Khonsfsain nachang a-san-e, a-nung-a
they are. The Kukis by plantains they cut, afterwards
a-dontan. * Anting a-lui-te' a-tin mi tampi a-che-num
they sprang up. Footmarks they are old saying people many they
to go wished
ta-poi. Mi alhora a-che-tai. Chucha Khongsai a-lh6nk-a.
not. People few they went. Hence the Kukis they are few.
Our forefathers have told that men formerly lived in the bowels
of the ear^;h. The Khongzais and the M^thgs were thgh
friends. One day they quarrelled about a cloth-, and their
mother took a dao and cut it in two pieces. The Methes
began to cut haimang trees, and finding their footprints fresh
many people followed them. That is the reason why tfe
Methes are so numerous. The Khongzais went to cut plantain
trees and then ascended into the earthi These footprints
looked rather old, and therefore only few people followed.
The. Khongzais are, therefore, few.
[This story was taken down by a young Manipuri who possessed
a fair education, and it is obvious that he has used one or two
piu'ely Manipuri idioms. For instance, he gives the wbrfl MSth6,
while the Thado uses Mele, for Manipuri.]
TauBe is for a-Um-you-sij corresponding to the Manipuri leiba
BulorhungJcon. I am inclined to translate this as before
coming to the top, ie.^ before emerging from the earth. Hiing-kon
means just before coming.
Khongmi'le Maithai. It is usual to use two le 's.
Atool. The ordinary form gives the initial sound as g, but it is
only a proof of the extreme lenity of the ioitial.
A'kichu'lhonin. Ki is the particle of mutuality. Chu seems to
mean ' to take ' and is perhaps connected with chOy to buy, while
Iho means * to take away, carry right off.' In this way the sense of
' quarrelling ' is obtained.
A'thak-e. The ordinary form is without the final consonant.
Ndchang. Nd is a leaf and chang is the particle usually affixed
to anything round. It would be interesting to ascertain how the
plantain came to be called the round leaf. The other word for a
plantain is mot.
A-nung and a-nung-d. Tlie connection between the footprint
and behind is clear. One leaves one's footprints behind one.
[I may say that this story is not complete in its present shape,
as the point of the quarrel about the cloth is not brought out.
The Manipuris got the larger share, and for that reason they now
use more cloth in dressing themselves than the Kukis, and they, the
Manipuris, being the younger, were helped by their mother in the
thAdo-english dictionary.
A, adjective prefix, used with all monosyllabic adjectives. For this
reason a large number of adjectives will be found under the letter 'A.'
A, pronominal prefix of the third person.
A, noun, a bird,
A, the suffix of the locative case.
A chal, noun, a cock.
A-ba, adjective, cheap.
A-ba, adjective, easy, probably derived from the preceding word.
A-bon, adjective, all, appears in the following modifications: — a*bon-
en, a-bon-pi, in which pi is the suffix of magnitude, and a-bon-
cha, in which chd is the suffix of diminutives.
A-bong, adjective, white.
A-ctam, adjective, short, level, even ; has the sense of '* agreement"
in the phrase hi'Cham^ to be mutually level, to agree.
A-ching, adjective, wise, intelligent, cf. Manipuri aingba.
A-chol, adjective, tired, as ka-ta a-chol-e, lit., my body is tired.
A-chom, adjective, short.
A-chom, adjective, different, apart, the vowel is sometimes chans^ed
to u, especially when reduplicated.
A-chom-nem, adjective, low.
A-chagha, adjective, poor, S.
. A-chung-a, postposition, on.
A-dang, adjective, othet-, else, used with the interrogative pronoun ;
a-dang koi, who else ?
A-di, adjective, correct, cf. dik, Rangkhol, and Tibetan dik dik.
A-dim, adjective, full, as of water, cf. Tibetan tem-tem.
A-doi, adjective, weak.
A-dong, adjective, new, fresh.
A-dop, adjective, cold, sometimes also a-dup.
A-eng, adjective, green, yellow.
A-eng, noun, turmeric.
A-gam-la, adjective, far, distant.
A-gei, adjective, late.
A-ghi, adjective, heavy.
A-ghil, adjective, difficult (probably identical with the preceding
A-ghin-na-bol, verb, to punish ; gUn is probably akin to khil^ to do
*wrong, bol is to do.
A-ghong, adjective, lean.
A-ghop, adjective, lean.
A-ha, adjective, dear.
A-ha-nun, adverb, strongly ; derived from root hat^ strong,
A-ha-ta], adjective, dear^ see a^b&i above.
A-hao, adjective, ridh.
A-hat, ad jective, strong ; adverbs formed from this root are a-ha-ntiu
<aad lu-'pin, the final /being elided ; it is also sometimes incorpo-
rated with the verbal root as a-ha-che-che-in, go fast. •
A-hem, adjective, sharp.
A-hem-lo, adjective, blunt, derived from the preceding word by the
addition of the negative suffix Id.
A-hlom, adjective, few.
A-hoi, .adjective, pretty, bjeautiful.
A-boiig, adjective^ tcheap, cf. Manipuri, Jiongha.
Ai, (Eoun, or. lb.
A-ka, adjective, double-barrelled, term used with methal, gun.
A-kari, adjective, low, shallow of rivers.
A-keng-bai, adjective, laojie, iJ^^^^, leg, and bai to halt, to stumble, as
ki'hai to hop.
A-kha, adjective, bitter, Manipuri, Kabul khdba.
A-kho, adjective, difficult.
A-ki-ka, postposition, between, ki prefix of mutuality and kd from
tAe root ia«,meaning to fasten, i.e., that which fastens two things
together is said to be between them,
A-ki-kol, adjective, round.
A-kora-a, postposition, meaning ' near,' ' to,' to, dative case.
A-kon, adjective, crooked, Manipuri.
A-kot, adjective^ damp.
A-ktim-se-a, adverb, annually, every year, kUm^ year, q.v.
A-kung, noun, branch of a tree.
Al, noun, noise, especially of a confused nature contrasted with ghin
A-la, adjective, cunning.
A-lai, postposition, between.
Al-cha-n, adverb, slowly, chd is the diminutive suffix, the simple
root alf slow, does not seem to occur.
A-le, adjective, true, right, correct.
A-len, adjective, big, great. Eangkhol and Manipuri tureni lit. 'big
A KJ-iOj adjective, little, small, S.
A-lti, noun, potato, Hindustani.
A'lui, adjective, old, of things.
A-ltim, adjective, hot, of water, as in Manipuri and Rangkhol. •
Ama, pronoun, personal, he or she, third person, singular.
Ama-hon, personal pronoun, they, third person, plurftl,
A-mel, adjective, ugly.
A-min, adjective, ripe.
A-mo, adjective, blunt.
Amolbi, noun, marks of a beating, weal.
A-mti-s-a, postposition, before, in the presence of, mu, to fttee, lit., ' ia
sight of.'
An, noun, cooked food, rice cooked.
A-nai, adjective, near, cf, Manipuri * nak! Tibetan * nyemo.^
A-nal, adjective, slippery, cf. Manipuri 7ai,' smooth, slippery.
A-nam, adjective, smooth, see preceding word.
A-ne, adjective, small.
A-nem, adjective, low.
A-nem, adjective, soft.
A-nen, adjective, dirty.
A-ngol, adjective, mad, silly, foolish, cf. Manipuri angou.
A-ngou, adjective, clean.
A-ning-li, adjective, square.
A-ni-she-in, adverb, daily, m, day, she, see a-kutn-se-d above.
A-ong, adjective, empty.
A:pa, adjective^ thin.
A-pao-mo, adjective, S., dumb, speechless, pao, language, speech, mo^
rare negative suffix, only found here^ the usual form being piao-
A-pha, adjective, good.
A-phai, adjective, level, plain-.
A-pha-lo, adjective, bad, formed from pA5, good, by addition of the
negative suffix. Note the shortening of the a in pha, by addition
^ of a syllable.
A-pi, noun, hen, note pi the female suffix, a fowl, bird.
A-pung-a, posfposition, aside.
A-sa, adjective, thick.
A-sang, adjective, high, tall. Manipuri.
A-sat-hla, noun, hot weather, root aat^ hot, and hld^ month.
A-sel, adjective, raw.
A-sha, adjective, thick.
A-shang, adjective, high, tall.
Ashi, noun, star.
A-sh5, adjective, hot.
A-sot, adjective, late.
A-sting-a, postpoisition,, within, inside.
At, verb, transitive, to cut, bi at, to cut thatching.grass, «i/ ala«
^ means to cut, but is used in regard to trees.
A-ta, adjective, ripe.
A-ta, adjective, hard. '
A-tat, noun, duck,
A-tang, adjective, dear. Manipuri.
A*teng, adjective, clean.
A-tha, adjective, new.
A-thlamj SdjectiV6,awee<»
A*thou, adjective, fat.
A-thu, adjective, sour.
A-tot, adjective, merry.
A-tu, adjective, deep.
A-tui, noun, egg, lit. ' fowl's water.' a=fowl, #w*=water.
A-tu-ye, adjective, sweet.
A-tim-you-si, adjectival phrase, all, every one, c/. Manipuri ' Isbd
A-va, adjective, light, bright, cf. todt^ to shine.
A-vo, adjective, dry.
A-vom, adjective, black.
A-vor, adjective, damp, cold.
A-wa, adjective, bright, light, cf. wdt, to shine.
A-wai, adjective, broad.
A-wai, adjective, poor, troubled.
A-yang, adjective, light of weight, swift of foot, cf. Manipuri ' ydng *
A-yeng, adjective, green, yellow, also as a-eng.
A-yeng, noun, turmeric.
A-ying, adjective, dark, dense, as of jungle.
A-ying, noun, night, cf. Manipuri ' a-hing.^ Note that y is occa-
sionally euphonic, and therefore a-y-ing is possibly identical with
a-hing^ Manipuri.
A-yo, adjective, false, untrue.
A-yot, adjective, soft.
A-you-ni-h-a, noun, evening (query, derived from youj to complete,
and m, day, meaning thus ' the completion of the day ' ).
Ba, adjective, cheap.
Ba, adjective, easy.
Bai, adjective, lame, used with keng, leg.
Bai, verb {ki)j to hop, to stumble.
Ban, noun, arm.
Ba-na-pa, noun, middle son.
Bat, verb, to owe. (Note that the length of the vowel in this root is
liable to be changed in thd tenses of the verb.)
Be, verb, to beat a drum, cj. Kachcha Naga, he-ora.
Be, noun, pulse.
Beng, noun, cheek.
Beng, noun, load, basket.
Bi, noun, thatching grass, cf. Manipuri '%:
Bil, noun, ear.
Bing, noun, basket, see ' beng'
Bol, verb, to do, a^ghin-na-bolf to punish. Iambi bol, to prepare the
Bod, adjective, all, also as ' a-b6n-«n,' * a-bon-cha,* ' a-bou-pL*
•a*MM— — —— —— ^ r ■ I I ^——— ——————
Bong, noun, cow.
Bong, adjective, white.
Bong-hlo, noun, mud.
Bot^ verb, neuter, be broken, of an object like a stick.
Bu, verb, to wear,
Bti, notin^ paddy.
Cha, diminutive suffix.
Ohft, verb, as in ' ka^ ^ na^ ' a/ with ' yd, * a-ohd-tai^ I, you, or he
am, are, or is ashamed.
Ohl, verb, as in ' ka na, a^ with ^dang^ a chd^taC I, you, or he
am, are or is thirsty.
Cha, naun, tea.
Oham, adjective, level, ki-chanhy to be agreed.
Chang, noun, bullet.
Chang, adjective, round, used as a suffix with nouns of anything
roundj^as' laohang, head, khi'-chang^ a bead;
Chang, right, as opposed to ' left.'
Chang, verb, to obtain, get, acquire.
Chang, noun, rice cultivation.
Chiang-in, adverb, alone.
Cheng- wai, noun, rice husk.
Che-pang, noun, child, boy.
Che-verb, to go.
Chekhit, verb, go back, return.
Chem, noun, dao, cf. Tibetan ' diem-he^ scissors.
Ghetnf*cha, noun, knife^ chem^ dao, and cha diminutive suffix.
Chen, noun, abode.
Chep, verb, to suck.
Chi verb, to go, variant of che.
Chlf noun, sah.
Chihon, verb, to make salt.
Chi-khti, noun, salt well.
Chi-lging, noun, centipede.
Ching adjective, wlse^ ^/I yimipMkri singha.
Ching, verb, to tend cattle, to herdj graze;
Chip, verb, to sneeze.
Cho, verb, to buy.
Chok, verb, to buy.
Ch^m^ adjective, short, low.
ChSmf, adjective, separate, distinct, apart.
Chom, verb, to jump. Tibetan chhong.
Chop, verb, to kiss,
O&bii,' verb, to move, remove, Idnchou^ to take away.
Chugha, adjective, poor, S.
Da, verb, to spread,
Dadul, nouo, the bengan.
Dai-tui, noun, dew, daitui td, dew falls.,
Damum, noun, tobacco.
Danka, noun, silver.
Dang (cha), noun in combination with chd (q.v.), to be thirsty.
Dapi, noun, gong.
De, verb, to like or love.
Del, verb, to pursue, drive off.
Del, noun, pagri, dhoti, cloth.
Deng, verb, to beat, strike, cf. Bara, * de.*
Deobi, noun, poison.
Di, adjective, correct, accurate. Tibetan, dik-dik.
Dim, adjective, full. Tibetan ' tem-temJ
Ding, verb, to stand.
Ding, suflfix, indicative of (1) future time, (2) purpose, (3) obligation.
Dip, noun, bag.
Doi, adjective, weak.
Doi, noun, magic.
Dom, verb, to lift.
Don, verb, to drink.
Don but, verb, to answer.
Dong, verb, to ask, question, interrogate.
Dong, adjective, fresh, new,
Dop, adjective, cold.
Dor, verb, to protrude, stick out, in composition conveys the mean-
ing of * out from,' as dom- dor, lift out.
Dui, verb, to like or love.
Dum, noun, tobacco.
Dung, noun, stature, appearance. Tibetan * dongy face, appearance.
Dup, adjective, cold.
Gam-)a, adjective, far distant.
Gam-mang, noun, jungle.
Ge, verb, to pass the night, cf. Manipuri * lekJ
Gel, noun, hail, gel hid, to hail.
Get, numeral, eight.
Ghai-a-khu, noun, a pregnant woman.
Gbal, noun, enemy.
Ghal hat, verb, to make war. Lit., * to kill the enemy,' hat is the
form we find in Manipuri, while the ordinary form in Thado
' to kill ' is tat.
Ghal-leng, noun, an Angami Naga.
Ghal-leng-lam, noun, the country or direction of the Angami Naga,
or the north.
Gham-cheng, S. far.
Gham-ghal-lara, noun, the east.
Ghen, verb, to surround.
Ghi, adjective, heavy.
Ghil, adjective, difficult.
Ghin, noun, noise of an ordered nature, music, as opposed to al (q.v.)
Gho, verb, to endeavour, try, attempt, see go, ho^ too.
Ghol, noun, friend.
Ghong, adjective, lean.
Ghop, adjective, lean.
Ghu, noun, bones.
Ghu, verb, to steal, cf. Manipuri huba. Tibetan ku.
Ghul, noun, snake.
Ghuteng, noun, poison.
Gim, verb, to worry, be distressed, to vex oneself.
Gi-wa, verb, to rear, bring up a child.
Gro, noun, a bamboo.
Go, verb, to endeavour, attempt, try.
G^, verb, to burn, cremate.
Go-kong, noun, pipe.
Go-long, noun, pipe.
Gom, verb, to collect, gather, see * kon * and * khon.^
Go-shem, noun, the pipes, musical instrument.
Gu, verb, to steal, cf. Tibetan, ^kii,' Methe */m.*
Gup, numeral, six, see ^toup.^
Ha, noun, tooth.
Ha, noun, yam.
Ha, interrogative particlej where, whither, whence.
Ha, adjective, dear.
Ha-che, adverb, fast or quickly, from hat, strong, and che, to go.
Hai-e, noun, mango.
Hal, verb, to set fire, met hdl
Ham, adjective, rough.
Ham, adverb, to bark, nd ham, to snore,
Hao, adjective, rich.
Hao-sa, noun, chief, lit. * rich cattle/
Hao-sa-len, noun, great rich.
Hao-sa-pu, noun, old chief.
Ha-p-in, adverb, strongly, hdt^ strong.
Hat, adjective, strong.
Ha-tal, adjective, dear, costly, expensive.
Ha-vai, noun, dal.
He, verb, to know, root het, cf. Manipuri, * hebaJ
He-kom-a, adverb, place, liere.
'B.euip verb, ta soothe, ahdl hem, cf. Mmipuri * themba,' to soothe.
Hi, verb, to be, possibly derived from the verb hing, to be alive,
Hi-ho-a, possessive adjective third person, his, her, their.
Hil, verb, to show, teach.
Hilo, noun, demon, devil, cf. Manipuri * helloi.^
Hi-m$, possessive adjective, third person, his or her,
Hing, verb, to be alive. Manipuri also.
Hingchal, noun, Oachar,
Hla, noun, month, cf. Manipuri Hhd.^
Hla, noun, moon, cf. Manipuri * ^/ia,' Tibetan dawiJi,
Hla, noun, spear, cf. Manipuri * thd,^
Hla, noun, wing,
Hla, verb, set free.
Hla.! verb, to fall,
Hlai, verb, to run,
Hlam, verb, to break, undo, untie,
Hlan, noun, burial place.
Hlan*ku, noun, coffin.
Hlapi, Houn, song, hldpl-sd^ to sing.
Hling, verb, to suffice, as of rainfall.
Hlom, adjective, few.
Hlong-ui, rainbow.
Hlum, verb, to lie down, to sleep.
Hlut, verb, to enter, to penetrate, cf. Eachha Naga, hura * to enter \
[Mikir] lut.
Hoi, adjective, pretty, beautiful.
Hoi-a, interrogative particle, where, whence, whither.
Hoi, verb, to search, to look for, Tibetan * tsaV
Hom, verb, to divide, to share, to distribute,
Hon, noun, garden.
Hon, verb, to cook, to extract salt (with chi) yu A5w, to make, zu^
cf Manipuri * tong^ Bara ' %ong!
Hong, adjective, cheap, Manipuri origin.
Hop, verb, to share, divide, distribute,
Hot, verb, to shake.
Hu, noun, poison.
Hui, noun, wind.
Hui, noun, dog, hui achal^ male dog, hui pi, bitch, hui aldcha^ a
young bitch that has had no young, Manipuri, etc.
Hum, verb, to sleep.
Humpa, noun, jungle, grass,
Humpi, noun, tiger.
Hunta, noun, grass, jungle.
Hung, verb, to come, arrive.
Hung-khit, to come back, to return.
I, interrogative particle, what,
Ibi, interrogative particle, what.
I-bol-a, interrogative particle, why, lit., * what doing in/
1-da, interrogative particle, why ?
I-ding-a, interrogative particle, why, lit., ' what purpose fpr/
levep, adjective, few.
Ham, noun, beetle.
In, noun, house.
I-na-lo-v-a, interrogative particle, in what way? how? lit., * frona
what material. ?
IrH^-lCleip, interrogative particle, how? in what manner?
In-ne-pi, noun, wife, lit., * house belonging woman.*
In-pi-pti, noun, chief, lit., • house-founding elder.'
I-ti-le, interrogative particle, when.
I-ya, interrogative particle, how many,
l-yatpvcj, interrogative particle, how many times, how often. •
Kal, kal, verb, to climb.
Kalson, verb, to walk, S.
Kanij verb, to be drunk, used to express satiety in respect to drinJt
Kl»lB]t§j noun, leopard.
Kan, adjective, dry, Tibetan ^Jcanpo.^
Kan, verb, to fasten, tie, cf. Kachari ^khd.^
Kang, verb, to awake, rouse, S.
Kang, noun, a generation,
Kang, adjective, new.
Kanga, noun, a goose, Manipuri.
Kanga, noun, the game of * kmg or konyonJ
Kangjei, noun, polo, Manipuri.
[K^^agjong, noun, top (the plaything).
Kangthol, noun, bed, Manipuri.
Kanui, noun, creeper.
Kap, verb, to cry, weep, Manipuri, etc., cf. Bara, g,up.
Kap, verb, to shoot, Manipuri.
Ke, verb, to grow.
Ke, adjective, half, Manipuri * khe ' in * makhSJ
Ke, personal pronoun, first person, I.
Ke-ho-v-a, possessive, personal adjective, plural, our.
Ke-m-a, possessive, personal adjective, first person singular. Bay,
Kel, noun, goat.
Kel-phai, noun, reed.
Kem, noun, platform.
Ken-chut, noun, boot or shoe.
Keng, noun, leg, foot, hoof of an animal, Tibetan * JboMgr.'
Keng-bong, adjective, lame.
Ket, verb, to be broken, of a flat object*
Kba, adjective, bitter. - - -
Kha, noun, chin.
Khalei, noun, ladle.
Kham, verb, to stop^ prevent.
Khaovin, noun, creeper.
Khat, numeral, one, used as the indefinite article, a or an.
Khat, verb, to oflfer, to present, Manipuri.
• Khau, noun, rope.
Khelbuk, noun, thigh.
Khen^ verb, to separate, divide, c/. * khai,' Manipuri.
Khet, verb, as ^ ghil hhet^ to be hungry, ^ha ghil khef tai^^ I am
Khi, noun, necklace.
Khi-chang, noun, bead.
Khil, verb, to err, to do wrong, to sin.
Kbit, suflfix, indicates return, nung-khit, to come back, pe khit^ to
give back, also] repetition be khit, to beat again.
Kho, adjective, S., difficult.
Kho, noun, as in phrase * ka-kho a-shi-taiy^ I am cold (query, is
it connected with the Manipuri ' ^o^/ head ? The aspirate is soft
in Thado).
Khoi, noun, bee.
Khoining, noun, honey.
Khoiru, noun, wax.
Khom, verb, to gather, to collect, to assemble.
Khon, verb, to weave.
Khong, noun, boat, ship, * meikhu khong^^ a steam ship.
Khong, noun, drum.
Khonim, verb, to clean, used with * melhaly therefore to clean a gun.
Khoshi, verb, to feel cold.
Khoshit-hla, noun, the cold weather, the cold-feeling month.
Khu, noun and verb, to cough.
Khubu, noun, knee, cf. Manipuri * khu-u.^
Khu j in, noun, ankle.
Khtini, noun, footmark.
Khut^ noun, hand,
Khutgnong, noun, wrist,
Khutjem, noun, ring.
Khutjong, noun, wrist.
Khutpang, noun, hand, the open hand.
Khutpti, noun, the thumb.
Khutten, noun, fingernail.
Khutying, noun, finger.
Ki, noun, horn, antlers, cf. Kachha Naga * hake'
Ki, prefix, indicates mutuality,
Ki-a, verb, to wear, ...
Ki-bai, verb, to be lame or to hop, be halt,
Ki-bang, verb, to agree together.
Ki-bon, verb, to wrestle together.
Ki-b5ng-hein-in, adverb, equally, in equal shares.
Ki-but, verb, to wrestle,
Ki-cha, verb, to be afraid.
Ki-ch en-pi, verb, to marry, probably means * to ran away with.'
Ki-chom, verb, to jump.
Ki-chu-pi, verb, to seize, to snatch.
Ki-ha-sel, verb, to swear, to take an oath.
^Ki-ho, verb, to talk, to converse.
Ki-jat-sha, verb, to frighten, make afraid, ^jdt=chdy «A5=causative
Ki-ka-a, postposition, among, see ^a hi kd.'
Ki-khen, verb, to divorce, separate from.
Ki-kap, verb, to play together.
Ki-kol, adjective, round.
Ki-na, verb, to quarrel.
Ki-shil, to bathe, Rangkhol * gershiV
Ki-tem-chti, verb, to learn.
Ki-tem-chu-sha, verb, to teach.
Ki-to, verb, to meet, cf. Manipuri * thok-pa,^ to happen, * ok^na^ba,
to meet, Tibetan * fuk-che^ to meet.
Klo, verb, to throw a spear.
Ko, numeral, nine, Tibetan * guJ
Ko, verb, to call.
Koi, interrogative pronoun, who.
Kol, noun, foreigner, Mayang.
Eol-a-phe, noun, lightning.
Kol-bu, noun, Indian corn.
Kol-chu, noun, sugarcane.
Kol -lam, noun, the country of the foreigner, the west.
Kom, postposition, near to, in the locative case always used with
Kon, interrogative pronoun, who.
Kon, postposition, just before, with verbal roots only.
Kon, verb, to weave.
Kon, adjective, crooked.
Kong, noun, waist.
Kong, noun, eating vessel.
Kong-gou, noun, hip.
Konin, postposition, just before, with nouns.
Korka, noun, door, also * kot kd^
Kot, noun, door, * koi kd^ to shut the door, * hot hong^ to open
the door.
Kot, adjective, cold, damp.
Kotcha, noun, window, chd, diminutire suflSx,
Koushen, noun, demon, devil.
Koy, verb, to place, put.
Ku, noun, village.
Ku, verb, to cover, to thatch, cf. BS,ra ^ kkup/ (ff. alaK), Tbftdo
^ liiJcop,^ Kacheha Naga ^mifechopi head genn
Kugbti, noun, knee, S.
Kuha, noun, well. Manipuri guM.
Kuijong, noun, elbow.
Kul-hlum, verb, to worship, cf. BSrS *hhvlumi to worahip. MaAi*
puri khurumha,
Kum, season, year, cf. Manipuri * humai^^ this year. Eadicha
Naga and others have • *tii»i '=**-year,
Kum, noun, mouth.
Ku-mol, noun, village gate, lit., * viltoge hilh*
Kup, verb, to overturn.
La, verb, to take, to borrow, to get., cf. BarS * U!
La-do, verb, to take oflf, remove, as clothes.
Lai, noun, spot.
Lai, noun, navel, the centre,
Lai, verb, to dig.
Laili, noun, writing, the art of readiog dind writing, cf. Mampori
* lairik/ Bara, lit, to write, Kachcha Naga * laishu*
Lam, noun, country, direction, area.
Lam, adjective, smooth.
Lambi, noun, road, path, Metbe HamU^^ Tibetan * lemkJu^ hi is
probably the magnitive suflBx.
Lamkha, noun, roads meet, the place where two fdodi^ aaeei did
Lamshu, noun, the north.
Lamto, adjective, steep.
Lamtou, noun, the south.
Lan chou, verb, to take away, to remove.
Lankhong, noun, jackfruit.
Lang, noun, doolie or box.
Le, adjective, true accurate.
Le, suffix, indicating time or conditioD.
Le, noun, tongue.
Le, noun, earth.
Leichung, noun, bridge.
Leika, noun, white ant.
Lei, noun, basket.
L^l-icanj^ ntmn, h'eadba&d.
Lel«nami QOUH) headband*
Le-mang, verb, to throw away.
Len, noun, net.
Lea, adjective, big, great.
Leng, verb, to fly, cf. Kachari • lang^ Manipuri, ' leng^ used
only in " royal " speech.
Leog, noun, shoulder.
Lengkham, noun, plate.
Lengpihi, noun, earthquake.
Li, numeral, four.
Li, noun, shade, shadow,
Lileng, adjective, blue.
Lim enoun, form, shape, appearance, likeness.
Limbs, noun, sense. G.
Loi, noun, cultivation.
Lo, noun, medicine, material.
Lo, verb, to pull.
Lo, suffix, indicates negation.
Loi, noun, buffalo.
Loi, ,verb, to tear up.
Loi, verb, to pull, draw off, to milk.
Lu, noun, head.
Lu,i hang, verb, to be angry, cf. Kachchha Naga ' balung pumJ
Lukop, noun, pagri.
liukti, noun, umbrella.
Lum, adjective, liot, of water, cf. Munipuri and Kabui.
Lumgen, noun, shield.
Lung, noun, heart, nature, disposition.
Lung, noun, insect.
Lung-dong, verb, * ka-lung ka-dong^ ' I worry myself, • ka4ung a-
dong^^ they hate me, * d^ng^' to ask, search into, interrogate.
Mai, noun, face.
Maiche, noun, vegetables.
Mailang, noun, eating vessel.
Makhai, noun, half a rupee.
Malcha, noun, chilly.
Malaia, adverb, formerly.
Malpe, noun, thigh.
Man, noun, cost price.
Man, verb, to get, cf. Bara and Rabha.
Mang, noun, dream. Manipuri.
Mang, verb, to lose, to be spoilt, to waste, cf. Rabha ' ma,^ Mani-
puri * mangy Ghutiya ' kimang'
Mao, noun, woman.
Mao pui, verb, to marry.
Ma pa, noun, uncle.
Mat, mat, verb, to seize, to arrest.
Matti, noun, use, utility.
Me, noun, fire, a word found in nearly all the Tibeto-Burman
languages, Tibetan * me^ Methe * rm^
Me, noun, tail.
Me, noun, cloud.
Me, aka, noun, fog.
Me-aying, noun, lightning, also (v.) to lighten.
Me bal, verb, to be on fire.
Mehi, noun, rainbow.
Mehol, noun, charcoal.
Me kihal, verb, to set on fire.
Mekhu, noun, smoke, i.^., that which covers the fire,
Mekhti khong, noun, steamer.
Mele, noun, a Manipuri.
Melong, noun, a Kabul Na?a.
Me-lo, noun, gunpowder, * me '=fire, *lo '=material.
Me pum, noun, a gun, hence * mepumchd^ a pistol and * mepum^
pi^* cannon.
Metai, noun, a widow.
Methal, noun, a gun.
Mel, noun, appearance (probably derived by metathesis from*lim').
Mel, adjective, ugly.
Mengcha, noun, a cat, cf. KacVicha Naga * ameng^^ obviously an
onomatopcBic root.
Min, noun, a name, Tibetan and Manipuri ' ming,^
Min, verb, to extinguish, to put out.
Min, adjective, ripe.
Mipa, noun, man.
Mit, nouio, eye, cf. Manipuri * mit^' Tibetan * mik^' the Tibeto-
Burman languages have * mil^ and ^nik ' very evenly distributed.
Mitcho, adjective, blind.
Mitku, noun, eyebrow, lit., * eye cover.'
Mithi ku, noun, lit., * dead man village,' heaven, the place of the
Mit-mu-a, postposition, eye seeing in, lit., ' in the presence of.*
Mo, adjective, blunt.
Mol, noun, trunk of elephant.
Mol, jaoun, hill. '
Mol-len, noun, mduntain, lit., " great hill.''
Mom, verb, to chew, masticate. .
Mot, noun, plantain, banana.
Mu, noun, eagle or hawk, cf, Angami Naga * remuJ
Mu, noun, beak. "^ *
Mu, verb, to see, also ' mwi/ cf. Manipurx ' S-fia,' Bara ' i>u.*
Mul, noun, feather, hair, cf. * 5/ ' or * un ' ManipurL
Mumtil, noun, moustache, lit., * face-hair/
Mu-s-a, pojitposition, before, in the presence of»
Mut, verb, to sleep, cf. Manipuri ^lum ha^
Muthi, noun, hawk.
Na, possessive, pronominal prefix, second person.
Na, nouD, leaf.
Na, adjective, ill, sick, cf. Manipuri * na! Tibetan * natsa^ see ' nat *
Na, noun, nose, cf. Tibetan ' na/ Manipuri ^ na!
Naham, verb, to snore, lit., * nose bark.*
Na-hon, personal pronoun, second person plural, you.
Na-ho-v-a, possessive adjective, second person, your, thy.
Nai, adjective, near, cf. Tibetan * nye-mo/ Manipuri * nak!
Nai, verb, to maintain, belong to, Tibetan * nai/ to dwell.
Nal, adjective, slippery, cf. Mra ' na/ to roll, Manipuri *ldV
Nam, adjective, smooth.
Nam, verb, to smell, Manipuri * nam/ Tibetan * ti-nam!
Namkol, noun, yoke.
Nang, personal pronoun, second person singular, thou, found in.
many Tibeto-Burman languages.
Nangma, possessive adjective, second person, thy.
Na-ngong, adjective, deaf.
Nang-6-v-a, possessive adjective^ second person singular,, thy.
Nao-nu, noun, younger sister.
Nao-pa, noun, younirer brother.
Nat, adjective, ill, sick, Tibetan ^natsa!
Nat hlut, verb, to have fever,, probably means * the demon {naty
enters in ' htut^ to enter.
Ne, verb, to eat.
Ne, adjective, small, * ne-o-cha,' tiny^
Ne, noun, lip, chin.
Nemul, beard.
Nelpeng, noun, foi-eleg of an animaU
Nem, adjective, low.
Nem, adjective, soft.
Nen, adjective, dirty.
Ne-o, adjective, smalL
Nga, numeral, five.
Nga, noun, fish.
Ngai, verb, to be customary, to be usual.
Ngai-het, adjective and participle, knowing what iw usuaF, hence
polite, mannerly.
Ngei, verb, to hear, to listen to, cf. Bara, ^Winal to hear.
Ngoi, nonn, weir for fishing.
Ngol, adjective, mad, silly, foolish.
Ngong, noun, throat, c/. Kachcha Naga ^gong.^
Ngou, adjective, clean.
Ni, noun, mother-in-law, aunt.
Ni, numeral, two.
Ni, noun, day, sun.
Ni-blum-a, adverb, at sunset, ht., *at the sleeping of the sun.*
Ni^hltim-lam, noun, the direction of the sunset, the west.
Ni-hlum-ntingjl, adverb, after sunset.
Ningkum, noun, last season.
Ninjrli, adjective, square.
Ni-sha, noun, the sun, the sun's warmth.
Ni-she-in, adverb, daily.
Ni-sho-a, adverb, at dawn, lit., * at the birth of the sun.'
Ni-sho-lam, noun, the direction of ihe sunrise, the east, cf. Mani-
puri * nongpoJc lam,^ Kachcha Naga ' ting {sun) joshunJ
Ni-sho-ma-sangin, adverb, before sunrise.
Nitilum, noun, testicle.
Noi, verb, to laugh, cf. Manipuri ' nok-pa.^
Noi, noun; breast, teat, udder, dug.
Noi-tui, noun, milk, lit., breast water.
Nom, verb, to wish, to desire, nom-ta, to decide, cf, Bara * namaV
Nongthi, noun, bead.
Noushen, noun, babe.
Nu, verb, to sprinkle.
Nu, noun, sister, female sufS.x.
Ntil wang, nonn, badger.
Ntimei, noun, woman.
Nung, noun, footprint.
Nung-a, adverb, after, and as postposition, also behind.
Nunga-nti, noun, girl, maiden, vir2:in.
Oi, nonn, stomach, cf. Bara * udoV
Oi na, verb, to have cholera.
Oi sunai, verb, to have dysentery.
Oi ta, verb, to ease oneself.
Ole, noun, alligator, S.
Ompheng, nonn, chest, thorax.
Ong, adjective, empty.
Op, noun, chest, thorax.
Pa, noun, father.
Pa, adjective, thin.
Pabeng, noun, flower.
Pagong, noun, widower.
Pal, verb, to cross.
Pama, postposition, outside, without.
Pan, verb, to begin.
Pao, noun, language, speech, c.f. Kachcha Naga 'empaura * to
converse. Manipuri *pao' rumour, current talk.
Pao-mo, adjective, dumb, speechless. [Note that * vio ' as a nega-
tive is extremely rare.]
Pao-te-lo, adjective, dumb, speechless, 'Tg,' to be able.
Pasal, noun, male.
Pat, noun, cotton.
Paten, noun, God, Deity,
Patphe, noun, thread.
Pe, verb, to give, also used as a causative suflB.x.
Ped, verb, to bite.
Pel, verb, to drive off.
Pen, noun, ancestor.
Pengpulep, noun, butterfly.
Pet, verb, to bite.
Pha, noun, time, occasion, opportunity.
Pha, adjective, good, fit, right.
Pha, verb, to get, receive, cf. Manipuri phangba.
Phai, noun, the thigh, c/. Manipuri 'phaigan ,' also ' mal-pe ' above.
Phai, noun, the plain.
Phai, adjective, level, plain, even.
Phaibi, noun, the Manipur valley. Pkai^leyel, bi, magnitive
Pha-lo, adjective, bad.
Pha-te-ta-n, adverb, carefully.
Phatvet, noun, looking-glass.
Phe, noun, mat.
Phek, noun, mat.
Pho, verb, to dry.
Phu, noun, revenge, * pha /d,* to take revenge.
Phung, noun, clan, family.
Phut, verb, to plant, put in the ground straight.
Pi, feminine suflSx.
Pi, magnitive suflB.x, also in Mikir.
Po, adverb and postposition, without, S.
Po, verb, to carry.
Po, negative suffix.
Pol, noun, straw.
Pon, noun, cloth.
Pon-ln, noun, tent, ^pon ' cloth and * in ' house.
Pu, verb, to carry.
Pu, noun, grandfather.
Pui, verb, mao pui, to marry.
Pulun, noun, onion.
Pum, noun, body.
Pum, noun, raft.
Punga, postposition, aside,
Sa, noun, animal.
Sa, adjective, thick.
Sagi, numeral, seven.
Saginkang, noun, rhinoceros.
Saha, noun, ivory.
Sai, verb, to belch.
Sajung, noun, rhinoceros.
Sakhau, noun, bag.
Sakol=- horse *5a,' animal, * kol^^ foreign.
Baku, porcupine.
Sa-lam, noun, east.
Sa lung, verb, to be angry.
Sam, noun, hair, cf. Manipuri • 8am.^
Sambu, noun, verandah,
Samti, noun, comb.
Sang, verb, to watch, guard, Manipuri * mngba^ Tibetan ^nlunghaj
Sang, adjective, high, tall.
Sang, numeral, one thouwsand, cf. Kachcha Naga ' 8hdng.*
Sang ta, verb, to believe.
Sanga, noun, wild cat.
Sanga, postposition, inside, within.
Sat, verb, to cut.
Sat-hla, the hot weather, lit. the hot month, ' sat, ' hot.
Sathou, noun, fat, oil.
Satui, noun, juice, gravy.
Sed, verb, to spit.
Sal, verb, to hide, conceal.
Sel, adjective, raw.
Sem, noun, dao.
Senchi, noun, measles.
Sha, noun, animal Henh, cf. Tibetan ' sha,^ meat.
Sha, verb, to make, to build, causative suffix, ' pon in sha ' to
pitch a tent.
Sha, adjective, thick.
Shaghi, noun, deer. Sha animal, hi antlers«
Shaipi, noun, elephant.
Shal, verb, to send, despatch.
Shalu, noun; granary.
Shang, adjective, high, tall.
Shangkol, nouBiOoat.
Sha-iin, noun, skin. [Note—u? sometimes inserted for euphony.]
She, verb, to say.
Shel, adjective, raw.
Shelda, noun, mithan.
Shelpal, noun, fence.
Shem, to found, establish, make, build, Manipuri ' sem. *
Shi, verb; to be cold, as ' kho d-shi ' I am cold,
Shil, verb, to wash the body.
Ship, verb, to throw.
Shit, verb, to be cold, with ' kho.*
Sho, nouQ, slave, servant.
Sho, adjective, hot.
Sho, verb, to give birth to.
Shok, noun, slave, servant.
Shong, noun, stone.
Shon, verb, to push, to press.
Shong chep, adjective, stone fitted, * shong chep methxil^ a flint gun.
Shot, adjective, late, used with verbs to give the idea of late and
long ago, as tangka la a-shot-tai = the money was borrowed
long ago.
Shon-hlut, verb, to dip in, to plunge in, combination of %hdn^ to
push or press (q.v.) and hiut^ to enter (q.v.).
Shov, verb, to wash clothes.
Sho, noun, vulva.
Shut, verb, to touch.
Shumshun, noun, copper.
Shumeug, noun, brass.
Shut, verb, to pierce, to stab.
Shutop, verb, to dip.
Silat, noun, cow.
Sim, verb, to count.
Simi, noun, ant.
So, noun, slave, servant.
Soi, verb, with * iu^ to talk, to converse.
Song, noun, stone.
Sol, verb, to send, to despatch.
Som, numeral, ten.
Sotpin, adverb, late.
Sou, noun, panji.
Souk, noun, slave, servant.
Su, noun, dhan-pounder, cf, Manipuri * mh. '
Su, verb, to pound paddy, cf. above, and Bara, * so.
Su, prefix, indicating causality.
Subot, verb, to break (of long objects, such as a stick).
Suket, yerbi to break (of objects roiind and flat).
Sum, noun, property.
Sumbel, noun, cooking pot.
Stimeng, noun, copper.
Sumsala, noun, percussion cap.
Sun, verb, to wrap, from * chun.^
Sung, verb, to pour.
Sung-a, postposition, within, inside.
Sungo-v a, postposition, inside, within.
Sungphulen, noun, small pox.
Sunna, noun, gold.
Su-pi, noun, daughter.
But, verb, to make, • laili ' to write and read, cf. ' su.^
Ta, verb, with * oi,^ to ease oneself, with ' yung^* to make water.
Ta, noun, body, cf. Rangkhol * taJc.^
Ta, adjective, ripe.
Ta, adjective, hard.
Ta, verb, to run.
Talikot, noun, gate.
Ta-chol, verb, to be tired. Ka-fd a-chol-e—l am tired.
Taikithule, noun, the day before yesterday.
Taiting, noun, came.
Takhtip, S., box.
Tam, verb, to chide, reprove, abuse, reproach.
Tam, adjective, many, used as a plural formative, cf. Tangkhul-
Naga, Ao Naga, Lhot^ Naga.
Tam-ve, adverb, often, many times.
Tang, adjective, dear.
Tangka, noun, rupee.
Tangka-cheng, noun, silver.
Tanglam, noun, the south.
Tangval, noun, bachelor.
Ta sang, verb, to believe, (?/.. Kachcha Naga, * gasang.* Ka-td
sangt^l believe.
Tasipi, noun, old woman.
Tasipu, noun, old man.
Tat, verb, to kill, cf. Manipuri * hat,^ Bara * that.^
Te, verb, to be permitted, to bo able, to know how, root ' tem.^
Teng, adjective, clean.
Tenggol, noun, stick, Manipuri.
Tengte, noun, beetle.
Tha, adjective, new.
Thai, noun, arrow.
The, noun, fruit, cf. Manipuri he
Thetui, noun, juice, lit., fruit- water.
Thi, noun, blood, cf. Manipuri • i/ blood.
Thi, noun, iron.
Thibu, noun, pipe,
Thilc, noun, iron,
Thinkhat, pronoun, anyone.
Thing, noun, wood, tree, cf. Tibetan • sin^ Manipuri * Hng.
Thingku, bark^ noun.
Thing kung, box, noun,
Thingga, fruit, noun.
Thing lang, noun, jbum.
Thing lin, noun, tree.
Thing 16 pel, noun, snare, trap.
Thing malcha, noun, betelnut.
Thing na, noun, leaf. Manipuri la.
Thing nai, noun, rubber.
Thing pel, noun, plank.
Thing thei, noun, fruit.
Thing yung, noun, root.
Tho, verb, to meet, encounter, of. Manipuri • ihohi to happePi and
• oknaba^ to meet.
Thou, adjective, fat.
Thou, noun, fat, oil.
Thoumei, noun, lamp.
Thti, adjective, sour.
Thulum, noun, poison.
Thum, numeral, three.
Thting, verb, to arrive.
Ti, verb, to die, cf. ' thoi,' -Bara, ' thi ' Halung, • si • Manipuri
Ti, verb, to say, to think.
Ti, noun, flood, juice, Manipuri 'i\ Tibetan * si.'
Til, noun, thing, load.
Til kingou, to put down the load, to yegt.
Tin, noun, nail, finger nail.
Ting, noun, ginger,
Tinsha, noun, spear*
Ti-to, verb, to itch, ' ti ' blood, ' to ' work.
Ti ul, noun, sweat.
To, noun, anus.
To, verb, to sit.
To, verb, to work.
To-in, adjective, little.
Toghui, noun, rainbow.
Toinu, noun, a rare precious stone.
Tokai, noun, hip.
Tong, noun, work.
T?ongta, verb, to touch.
Tonaili-in, adverb, formerly.
Tot, adjective, merry.
Tou, noun, fly.
Toukang, noun, mosquito.
Touptim, noun, sandfly.
Tousi, noun, insect.
Tu, noun, word, order, cf. Tangkhul * f ui.'
Tti, verb, to fall
Tu, adjective, deep.
Tti-hi-yai, adverb, nowadays.
Tui, noun, water, cf. Bara * dui^ a word common to many t)f the
Tibeto-Burman languages : lost in Manipuri, except in {firm,
river, which=* tui * water, * ren ' or * ten ' big. Tibetan has
^ chhUf* water, or * tztt^' but also a word * tuipat to wash.
Tuidung, noun, river.
Tuilung, noun, river.
Tuina, source.
Tuina lam, north, direction of the source of the rivers.
Tui-ta lam, south, direction in which the rivers fall.
Ttikum, noun, this season, this year.
Te-le-len, adverb, at once, immediately.
Tum, verb, to strike.
Tung, noun, lizard.
Tungai, noun, calf of the leg.
Tungdun, noun, back.
Tange, adverb, nowadays.
Tu-ngei-pa, noun, commander.
Tungtil, noun, earthworm.
Tunin, adverb, today.
Tti-nu, noun, granddaughter.
Tonyong, adverb, nowadays.
Ta-pa, noun, grandson.
Tusim, noun, legend, story, tale.
Tu soi, verb, to talk, to converse.
Tutsa, noun, hoe.
Ta-ve-in, adverb, up to the present.
Va, verb, to eat enough, to be satisfied with regard to food.
Ve, adverb and adjective, left, opposite to right.
Ve, suflSx, of iteration; with numerals, as m'Ve=twice ; with verbs
indicating custom or habit, as sfiaghi ka^jfa-del-u^ve^we an
in the habit of hunting deer.
Vet, verb, to look.
Yd, verb, to beat.
thAdo-english dictionary. 83
Vo, adjective, dry.
Vok-cha, noun, pig. Tibetan *pukpa} Manipuri • ok! Angami
Naga ' thevo.*
Vom, adjective, black.
Vor, adjective, damp, cold.
Vo-ying, verb, to have the hair of the head cut.
Vu-bang, noun, hoar frost, ' vubang td^ to freeze.
Vut, verb, to pierce.
Wa, noun, crow.
Wa hong, noun, peacock. Manipuri.
Wai, adjective, poor.
Wai, adjective, wide.
Wai, noun, husk.
Wan, noun, sky, heaven. Van in Manipuri.
Wan-aging, thunder, lit. sky-noise*
Wanoi mi, noun, mankind.
W^ phol, noim, toucan.
Wat, verb, to shine.
Wat, verb, to be wanting. Manipuri.
Wat, noun, leech.
Wo, verb, to cremate.
Wo, verb, to sow.
Wo, verb, to endeavour, • ki-wd*
Wo, noun, bamboo. Also *go.^
Wo, noun, rain, * wo yi^ it rains.
Wompi, noun, bear.
Wu, verb, to stink.
Wui, verb, to bury.
Wun, noun, skin, also * in.*
Wtip, numeral, six, also * gup!
Wut, noun, ashes.
Ta, verb, to hear.
Ya, numeral, hundred, cf. Manipuri * f/ang'khei!^=&ity (one hutt-
dred halved), also ' chdJ
Ta cha, verb, to be ashamed. Kagd a-cha-tai^l am ashamed.
Tainin, adverb, yesterday.
Talkhun, noun, coffin.
Yam, noun, sheep.
Yan, noun, night.
Yao, noun, sheep.
Yeng, adjective, green or yellow.
Yi, noun, spouse. Fi-|?5=husVand, yF-»ti=wife..
Ying, adjective, dense as a jungle, dark,
Ying, noun, night.
Tingkale, adverb, early.
Tinglei, adverb, tomorrow.
Ti-nu, noun, wife.
Ti-pa, noun, husband.
To, adjective, false, untrue.
To, verb, to be able.
Tot, adjective, soft.
Tou, verb, to complete, finish, to be able.
Til, verb, to sell.
Tu, noun, beer, wine.
Tu-bel, noun, beer jar.
Tticha, noun, rat, cf. Angami Naga, • the-zu^ • z,' and • y * are
often interchanged.
Tung, noun, penis.
Tung ta, verb, to make water.
A, khat.
Ake, to be, yo, physical ability, te, mental ability =-*=td be permitted^
Abode, in (house) chen, ka-um-na.
Abuse, to, tarn.
Accurate, adl, adik, ale.
Acquire, to, pha, chang, mdn, 15.
Afraid, to be, kicha [to make afraid, 'kijatsha']. .
After, nuDga, nungin.
Agree, to, ki-chom, ki-te, ki-mat ki-bang.
Air, wan.
Air (song) blapi.
Alike, takat, alim, khat.
Alive, to be, ahing.
All, abon, abonpi, aboncha, abonen, a-um-you-sl, ycn-sfi
Alligator, ole.
Alone^ changin.
Although, yong-le-chung (suffixed to verbal root).
Am, ka-hi, ka-um.
Among, kika-a, alai.
An, khat.
Ancestor, pen.
Anger, lung sha.
Angry, to be, lung sha, lung hang.
Animal, sba.
Annually, akumsea.
Answer, donbut.
Ant, simi [white ant, leika].
Antler, noun, kii
Anus, to.
Anyone, thinkhat.
Anything, imacha.
Apart, chom-chom, khat-khat.
Appearance, alim, amel, adung.
Arm, ban, khut.
Arrest, mat, man.
Arrivej to, thung.
Arrow, thai.
Ashamed, to be [ka, nai a]*— ya acha.
Ashes, wut.
Ask, to, dong.
Assemble, to, kikhom, kikliom.
At| a, locative case suffix.
At once, tulelen.
Attempt, to, kiho, go, wo, hai.
Away, a, henga, koma (take away, Ian chou).
Awake, to, kang, thou.
Babe, noushen.
Back, tungdun.
Back, kbit, verbal suffix. Hung khit=to eome back.
Bad, pha-lo.
Badger^ nulwSng.
Bag, dip, khao-dip.
Bamboo, go, wo.
Bark (of a tree), thingkhu.
Bark, to, ham (as of a dog).
Basket, lei, beng.
Bathe, to, ki-shil.
Be, to, hi, um, hing.
Bead, khichang, nongthi.
Beak, mu.
Bear, sawom, wompi.
Bear, to, pti, p6.
Beard, nemuL
Beast, sha.
Beat, to, be, vo, deng, do.
Beautiful, ahoi.
Bed, kangthol.
Bee, khoi.
Beer, yu.
Beetle, itom, tengte.
Before, ma-sangin, konin, kon, amusa, mit-mu-a (two last=ia
presence of).
Beg, to, ni, dong.
Begin, pan, used as a suffix*
Behind, nuuga.
Belch, to, shai.
Believe, to, tasang.
Bengan, dadul.
Best, abonen sanga aphS, aph&beshe (latter is an absolute
Betelnut, thingmalcha.
Between, akikan, alau
Bid, to, tushg*
Big, alen.
Bind, to, kan«
Bird, a.
Birth, sho.
Bitch, hui pi, bui alacha.
Bite, to, ped or pet.
Bitter, akha.
Black, avom.
Blood, thi.
Blue, lileng.
Blunt, amO| ahem-lo.
Boat, khong.
Body, pum, tS.
Bone, ghu.
Borrow, to, la.
Box, thinkting, lang, takhup.
Boy, pasaL
Brass, sumeng.
Break, to, * bot,' of straight long objects, ' ket ' of flat objects,
* she,' a n:ore general word, •lilam,' to break string or cane fasten-
ing ; ^ subot, suket,' are causative forms«
Breast, noi.
Bridge, leichting.
Bright, awa, ava.
Bring, to, bin po, hin chou, bring forth • sho,' bring out ' lancbou.
Broad, adjective, awai.
Brother, elder, a-ti-pa, younger, a-nao-pa.
Buffalo, loi.
Build, to, sha, shem.
Bullet, chang.
Burn, to, mS hal, me kihal, * wo,* to cremate.
Bury, to, wui.
Butterfly, penjrpulep.
Cachar, Hingchal.
Call, to, ko.
Cane, taiting.
Cap, Itikop, del, for the head.
Cap, sumsala, for use in a gun.
Captain, haosa, inpipti, tbungeipa.
Carefully, phatetan.
Carry, to, po, pu.
Cask, ytibel.
Cat, meng-cha.
Cat, wild, sanga.
Centipede, chiling.
Centre, lai.
Charcoal, meibol.
Cheap, aba, abong.
Chest [equivalent to *box*J, thingkung, takup, laog.
Chest [equivalent to * thorax'], omheng, op.
Chew, to, mom, chop.
Chide, to, tam.
Chief, baosa, inpipu.
Chieftain, baosalen, baosapu.
Chilly, malcba.
Chilly, adop.
Chin, kba, nei.
Cholera, oi na, lit, to be ill in the stomach.
Clean*, ateng, anou.
Clean, to [a gun], meithal khonim.
Climb, to, kal.
Cloth, pon.
Cloud, mei.
Coat, sbangkol.
Cock, achal.
Cojfin, hlanku, yalkhun.
Collect, to, ko kho.
Comb, fiamti.
Come, to, hung, come back, htingkhit.
Command, to, thti she.
Commander, thungeipa.
Compkte, to, you, used as a suffix to past tense.
Conceal, to, seU
Converse, to, tu soi, kiho.
Cook, to, hon.
Cooked rice, an.
Cooking pot, sumbel.
Copper, sumneg.
Corn, kolbti.
Correct, adi, adik, ale.
Costly, aha, hatal.
Cough, to, khu.
Cotton, pat.
Count, to, sim.
Cow, bong, silhat.
Country, lam.
Cover, to, ku.
Crab, ai.
Creeper, kanui, khaovin.
Cremate, to, go, wo.
Crop, changchang.
Orookedi akon.
Cross, to, pal.
Crow, wa.
Cry, to, kap.
Cunning, ala.
Cultivation, lo, thinglang.
Customary, to be, angai, according to custom * angai nunga/
Daily, anishe-in.
Damp, akot, avor.
Dao, chem.
Dark, aying. /*]
Daughter, chanti.
Dawn, nisho.
Day, Di.
Deaf, na-ngong. • • ^
Dear, aha, hatal, atang.
Deep, atu.
Deer, shaghi.
Deity, paten.
Demon, hilo, koushen
Dense, aying.
Devil, hilo, koushen.
Despatch, to, shal, sol, chesba.
Dhan, bu, chang.
Dhan-pounder, suk, su.
Dhan, to pound, su.
Dhoti, del.
Die, to, ti.
Difficult, aghil, akho.
Dig, to, lai.
Din, ghin, al.
Dip, to, shonhlut, shutop.
Direction, lam.
Dirty, anen.
Disposition, lung.
Distant, gamla, ghamcheng.
Distress, awai, chang ti wai.
Distressed, to be, gim, lung dong wai.
Distribute, to, hop, hom.
Divide, to, kihop, kihom.
Divorce, to, kikhen.
Do, to, bol, to.
Do wrong, to, khil.
Dog, hui.
Doolie, lang.
Door, kot, korkha.
Double-barrelled [of a gun], aka.
Drink, to, don.
Drive off, to, del-do, phel.
Drum, khong.
Drunfcj^ to be?, yu k«im.
Dry, vo.
Dry, to, pho.
Duck, atat.
Dug, noi.
Dumb, paotelo, apaomo.
Eagle, mu.
Ear, bil.
Earth, le.
Earthquake, lengpihi.
Early, ayingkale.
Ease oneself, to, oi ta.
East, nlsholam, ghamgal lam, salam.
Easy, aba.
Eat, to, ne.
Eating- vessel, kong-mailang.
Egg, atui.
Eight, get.
Eighteen, som leget.
Eighty, som get.
Elbow, kuijong.
Elder [noun], pti [meaning ancestor].
Elder, u, as ' a-ti-pa,* elder brother, a-ii-nu, elder sister.
Elephant, shaipi.
Else, adang, if it is not so, a-um-hi-le.
Empty, aong.
Endeavour, to, go wo, kiwo, hai.
Enemy, ghal.
Enough, * va * of food, * kam ' of drink, * hling ' of rain, etc., all are
verbal roots.
Enter, to, hlut, thung.
Entertainment, kumai.
Equally, kibonghenain.
Err, to, khil.
Establish, to, shem.
Even, acham, aphai.
Evening, ayounlha.
Every, abon, abonpi, aboncha, abonen, aumyousi, yousu
Every day, anishein, every year, akumsea.
Excellent, phata.
Extinguish, to, min.
Eye, mit.
Eyebrow, mitkhu.
Pair, ahoi {i.e., pretty).
Face, mai.
Fall, to, til, hla, of rain * wo yu.'
Palse, yo, alepo.
Pamily, phung, in-kii.
Famine, changtiwai.
Far, gamla, gamcheng.
Fast, ahache, ahanun, hapin, ayang (adj.)
Fat, athou.
Fat [noun], sathou.
Fear, to, kicha.
Feel, to feel cold, * ko shi,' to feel hot, * tiul asho.'
Female, suffix * pi ' or 'alacha' with animals and the word * Bttmff *
in the case of human beings.
Fence, shelpal.
Fetch, to, bin puro, bin chou.
Fever, nat hlut.
Few, ahlom, ievep.
Fifteen, sonlenga.
Fifty, som nga.
Fine, ahoita, apha, apa.
Finish, to, the suffix * you ' with the past tense.
Finger, khut.
Finger nail, khut tern.
Fire, me.
Fire a gun, to ; kap, fire, to catch, me hal.
Fire, to set fire to, me ki-hal.
Fish, nga, to catch fish, • nga mat.'
Fit, apha.
Five, nga.
Flat, phai, acham.
Flesh, sa.
Fling away, to, lemang.
Flower, pabeng.
Fly, to, leng.
Fly, tou.
Fog, me aka.
Foot, keng.
Food, an.
Foolish, ang
Footprint, kutni, nung.
Foreigner, kol.
N 2
Foreleg, n^lpenff.
Forget, to, sumitgam.
Form (shape or appearance), dung, lim, mel,
Formerly, tonlai-in, malea.
Forty, som li.
Foul, anen.
Four, li.
Fowl, a
Freeze, to, vubang ata.
Fresh, adong.
Friend, ghol.
Frighten, to, kijatsha.
Frightened, to be, kicha.
From, henga, kom-a, a.
Frost, vubang.
Fruit, the.
FuUj adimp
Game, kikap.
Garden, hon.
Gather, to, kom, khom.
Generation, kang.
Get, to, pha, chang, la, man, mat.
Ginger, thaiting, ting.
Girl, nunga.
Give, to, pe, give back, pekhit.
Give birth, to, sho.
Go, to, che, go back, chekhit.
Goat, kel.
God, Paten.
Gold, sunna.
• Gong, dapi.
Good, apha.
Goose, kanga.
Granary, shalu.
Grand, aleoj ahoi.
Granddaughter, ttinu.
Grandfather, pu.
Grandmother nu nu,
Grandson^ ttipa.
Grass, bi, humpa, hunt^,.
Gravy, satui.
Graze, to, ching.
Great, alen.
Green, ayen.
Grow to, ke.
Guard, to, sang.
Gun, methal, mepum.
Gunpowder, melo.
Hail, gel.
Hail, to, gel hla, ko (to call).
Hair, sam.
Half, makhe, ke, kha.
Halt, to be, akibai, keng bai, keng bong.
Halt, to, ding.
Hand, khut.
Hard, ata*
Hare, to, expressed by the use of the pronominal ^prefixes and
the verb ' to be ', or with the verb 'to be ' simply][as — The chief
has a dog, ' Haosalen hui ahi.'
Hawk, mu, mtithi.
He, ama.
Head, Iti, luchang, lung.
Head band, lelk^n, lelnam.
Heart, lung (signifying disposition).
Heaven, wan, mithiku, lit., the dead men*s village.
Heavy, ghi.
Hen, a-pi.
Her, hiho-a.
Here, hekoma.
Hide, to, sel.
High, asang, ' lam to ' of hills.
Hill, mol.
Hip, kong-gou, tokai.
His, hi-ho-a.
Hoarfrost, vubang.
Hoe, tutsa.
Hog, vok.
Honey, khoining.
Hop to, kibai.
Horn, ki.
Hot, asho, alum (of water), *be hot in body,' ti-ulsho; hot weather,'
* asat-hla/
House, in, chen.
How, inalolem, icalova.
How many, iya, iyat.
How many times, iyatve.
How often, iyatve.
Hundred, ya.
Hunger, ghil khet.
Hungry, to be, ghil khet.
Hunt, to, del.
Husband, yi-pa.
Husk, wai.
Husk to, chang su,
I, ke, ken.
If, expressed by the Buffix * le.'
Ill, na, nat.
Immediately, ttilelen.
In, stinga, asungova.
Indian-corn, kol bu.
Infant, chapang, noushen'.
Inquire, to, dong.
Insect, tousi, lung.
Inside, sunga, asungovS,
Intelligent, ala, aching.
Iron, tni, thik.
Itch, to, ti to.
Ivory, saha.
Jackfruit, lankhong.
Jail, phatok.
Jar, bel, yubel.
Jhum, lang, thing-lang, 16, chang.
Join to, kikom.
Juice, satui, thetui.
Jump, to, kichom.
Jungle, gammangi humpa, hunta.
Just, angai ahet (lit. to know what is customary).
Kang, kanga.
Keen, ahem.
Kick, to, la.
Kill, to, tat.
King, haosalen.
Kiss, to, chop.
Knee, khtibu, kugbu.
Knife, chemcha.
tnow, to, het, te, tem.
Ladle, khalei.
Lame, keinbong, akibai.
Language, npao.
Large, alen.
Last, anu nunga, last year, niogkum.
Laugh, to, noi.
Leaf, thing-na, na.
Lean, aghong, aghop.
Jieech; wajj.
Left, ve-lam.
Leg, keng. ^
Legend, tusim.
Leopard, kamke.
Letter, laili.
Level, acham, aphai.
Lie, to, to sleep=hlura.
Lie, to tell, tu yo ashe.
Lift, to, dom.
Light, ava, awa (also means, bright), ay ang, and hence 'aySng'
also means swift of foot.
Lightning, kolaphe, me aying.
Like, to, de, dui.
Like, takat.
Lip, ne.
Listen to, nge, ya.
Little, ane, alo-in, suffix * cha.*
Live to, um, hing.
Load, beng, til.
Long, asang.
Long ago, sotpin.
Look at, to, vet.
Look for, to, hoi.
Looking glass, phatvet.
Lose to, mang.
Love to, de, dui, nungshit.
Low, anem, achom.
Mad, angol.
Maiden, nunga.
Maintain, to, nai.
Make, to, sha ; make salt, * chi hon ;' make cloths,. * pon khon;*
make water, * yung ta;' make afraid, ' kijatsha;' make zu, ' yu
Male, ' pasal ' with human beings, * achal ' with .animals or 'yTing/
these are suffixed to the word.
Man, mips.
Mankind, wanoi mi.
Manipur, Phaibi.
Manipuri, a, Mele.
Mannerly, angai ahet. ,;
Many, adjective, tampi, tamt
Mango, hai-e, ^ - . .
Mar, to, mangsha.
Market, kaithen.
Marry, to, * mao phui ' of a virgin bride, * kichenpi • of a
second wife, also of the cases where the couple run away.
Masticate, to, mom, chep.
Mat, phe, phek.
Material, lo.
Mayang, Kol.
Measles, senchi.
Meat, sa.
Medicine, 16.
Meet, to, kitho, kimu.
Merry, atot.
Middle, alai, middle son, * banapa.*
Mighty, ahat.
Milk, noitui.
Mine, keraa.
Mine, lekhu.
Month, hla.
Moon, hla.
Moskito, taukang.
Mother, noun, nu.
Mother-in-law, ni.
Moustache, nemul, murmil.
Mud, bonghlo. 5
Music, ghio, hlapi (song).
Musical instrument, goshem.
Naga, Angami, Ghallen^.
Naga, Kabul, Melong. ^
Nail, ten.
Name, min.
Nature, lung, dung.
Navel, lai.
Near, anai.
Neck, angong.
Necklace, khi.
Net, len.
New, athat, akang.
Night, yan, aying.
Nine, ko.
Nineteen, som le ko.
Ninety, som ko.
Noise, al, ghin.
North, tuinalaxxi} gliallenglam; lamsbu.
Nose; na«
Now, tun. Nowadays, tunge, tunyong.
Obtain, to, chang, pha, la, man.
Occasion, pha.
Off, to drive off, deldo.
to take off, lado.
to pull off, loido.
Offer, to, khat.
OfteD, tamve.
Oil, thou.
Old, gllui, of things, * tasipi,' old woman, ' tasipu/ old man.
Once, khatve^
One, khat.
Onion, pulun, lothun.
Open, to, hong (of a door), ' hlam ' (of a box or basket fastened
with cane or rope).
Opportunity, pha.
Order, tu.
Other, adang, khatkhat, chomchom.
Outside, pama.
Overturn, to, kup.
Owe to, bat.
Paddjr, bu, changchang.
Pagn, del.
Panji, sou.
Pass, to (the night), ge.
Peacock, wahong. '
Penetrate, to, hlut.
Penis, yung.
Percussion- cap, sumsala.
Pierce, to, shut, pierce the ear ' vut.'
Pig, vok.
Pipe (for smoking), thibii, golong, gokong.
Pipes (musical instrument), goshem.
Pistol, mepumcha.
Pitch tent, to, ponin sha.
Place, to, koi. '
Place, lai.
Plain, phai, as the plain of Manipur.
Plain, amel, ahoi-lo.
Plank, thingpel.
Plant, to, phut.
Plantain, mot.
Plate, lengkham.
Platform, kem.
Play, to, kikap.
Plunge, to, shonhlut.
Poison, hu, deobi, ghuteng, thulum.
Polite, angai ahet.
Polo, kanje.
Poor, achugha, awai.
Porcupine, saku.
Pot, sumhel.
Potato, alu.
Ponr, to, sunof.
Pregnant, aghaiyakhun.
Present, to, khat.
Presence, in, amtisa, mitmuS,
Press, to, shoo.
Pretty, ahoi.
Prevent, to, kham.
Price, man.
Property, sum.
Protrude, to, dor.
Pulse, be.
Punish, to, aghin-na-bol.
Push, to, shon.
Put to, koi ; put on ' sil ;' bupe (cause to wear) ; put oflf * l&da ;*
put out ' min/ (fire) ; put away (divorce) ' kikheu ;' put
down * til kingou ;' put in * shonhult*'
Quarrel, to, kina.
Question, dong.
Quickly, ahache, hanun, hapin.
Baft, ptim.
Bage, to, lu hang beshe, luhaag nom.
Bain, wo.
Bain, to, wo yti.
Kainbow, hlonghui, tonghui.
Bat, yuoha.
Baw, asel.
Bead, to, laili sut.
Bear, to, giwa.
Bear, nung.
Beceive, to, pha, la, man, chang.
Bed, ashen.
Beed, kel-phai.
Bepeat, to, she-khit. Kbit gives the idea of repetition, whioh is
also produced by reduplicating the verbal root.
Beprove, to, tam.
Beyenge, phu;^ to take revenge, phu la.
wmttnn III ■ 11
Bkinoceros, s^ginkang, sajung.
Eice, * bu ' the seed, * chang ' the unhusked grain, * an * the
husked and cooked grain.
Bice husk, ch ngwai.
Bice, to husk, su.
Bich, ahao.
Bide, to, (a horse), sagol chnga to*
Bight, adi, ale (correct, true).
Bight (as opposed to left), changlam.
Bing, khutjem.
Bipe, amin, ata.
Boad, lamb!, roads meet, ' lamkha.'
Boam, to, koiche.
Bob, to, gh!u, lapx, kichupu
Bod, tenggol. .
Bock^ song.
Boot, thingyung.
Bope, khau.
Bough, aham.
Bound, akikol, achang.
Bouse, to, thou, kang.
Bubber, thingnai.
Bun, to, hlai, ta.
Bupee, tangka.
Salt, chi ; to make salt, ' chi hon ;* salt well, * chikhu*^
Sandfly, toupum.
Satisfied, to be, (food) * va,' (drink Y kam,' (general) * hling/
Say, to, she, tl.
Scarce, ahlom, ievep, awai.
Scarcity, chang ti wai.
Search to, hoL
Season, ktim.
See, to, mil, mtik.
Seize, to, man, mat, kichupi) lapi.
Sell, to, yu yo.
Send, to, che-sha, shal, sol.
Sense, limbe.
Separate, khatkhat, chomchom.
Set free, to, hla ; set down, *til kingou'; set up a teftt ^pSid«
sha' ; set fire to * mekihal.'
Seven, sagi.
Seventeen, som le sagi.
Seventy, som sagi.
Shade, noun, li. .
Share^ to, kihbp, kihom.
Share, chanding (from *chang* to get, and 'ding* the gerundial
Sharp, ahem.
She, ama. '
Sheep, yao, yam.
Shield, hlumjem.
Shine, to, wat.
Ship, khong.
Shoe, kengohut.
Shoot, to, kap.
Short, anem, achom.
Shoulder, long.
Show, to, hil.
Show, kumai
Siok, ana.
Silly, angol.
Silver, tangka cheng.
Sin, to, khU, sukhil.
Sing to, hlapi sa.
Sister, nu ; elder, * u-nti '; younger, * nao-nti/
Sit, to, to.
Six, gup, wup.
Sixteen, som le gup.
Sixty, som gup.
Skin, un, sha-un.
Sky, wan.
Slave, so, souk, sho, shok.
Sleep, to, hlum, hum, mut.
Slippery, anal.
Slowly, alchan.
Small, ane, alo-in, che, (suffix).
Small^poX; sungphti len.
Smell> to, nam.
Smoke mekhu.
Smoke, to (a pipe), thibu chep.
Smooth, anam.
Snake, ghul.
Snare, thing-lo-pel.
Sneeze, to, chit
Snore, to, na-ham.
Soft, anem, ayot.
Son, chapa.
Sougj hliipl.
Soothe, to, ghal hem.
Sour, athti.
South, ittitalam, tanglam, hanglam.
Sow, to, wo, kitu.
Spear, tinshaj hla.
Speechj pao.
Speechless, apaomoj paotelo.
Spit, to, sed.
Spoil, to, mangsa.
Spot, lai.
Spread, to, da, pha.
Sprinkle, to, nu.
Square, akikol, aninglL
Stab, tOj shut.
Stand, to, ding.
Star, ashi.
Stature, dung.
Steal to, ghu, gii.
Steam, mekhu.
Steamship, mekha khong.
Steep, lamto.
Stick, tenggol.
Stink, wu.
Stomach, oi.
Stone song.
Stone (precious), toinu.
Stop, to, kham.
Story, tusim.
Straw, pol.
Strike, to, de,[deng, turn, v5, be.
Strong, ahat.
Strongly, ahanun, hapin.
Suuk, to, chep.
Sugarcane^ kolohti.
Sun, ni, msha.
Sunrise, nisho.
Sunset, nihlum.
Surround to, ghen.
Swear, to, kihasel.
Sweat, ti-ul.
Sweet, athltim, atuye.
Swift, ayang.
Tail, me.
Take, to, la.
Take away, to, lanohou.
Take off| tO| loi do, lado.
Take out, to, domdor.
Take up, to, dom.
Take rerenge to, phu la.
Table, mez.
Tall, asang. *
Tale, tusim.
Tea, oha.
Teat, noi.
Ten, som.
Tend, to, ching.
Tent, ponin.
Testicle, nitilum.
Their, hihova.
There, hoikoma.
They, amahon.
Thick, asa.
Thigh, phai, malpe.
Thin, apa.
Think, to, verb, ti.
Thirteeiij som le thum.
Thirty, som thum.
Thorax, ompheng, op.
Though^ yong le chung (suffix).
Thousand, sang.
Thready patphe.
Three, thum.
Thrice, thum ve.
Throw away, to, lemang.
Throw, to, (a spear), klo.
Thumb, khutpi.
Thunder, wan agin.
Tie, to kan.
Tiger, humpi.
Time, pha.
Tiny, neoha.
Tired, chol.
To hin (prefix), * henga,' *koma/ *a,* (suflGixes).
Tobaooo, dam, damunu
To-day, ttini.
Tomb, ahlan, hanku, kawuina.
To-morrow, yingle.
Tongue, le.
Too, le, yong, hi (suffixes).
Tooth, ha.
Top, kangjong, plaything (like the ordinarj boy's top).
Toucan, waphol.
Touch, to, shuka, tongka.
Towards, hin (prefix), * henga/ *koma,* • a* (8ufl5xe»), .
Tree, thing.
Troubled, awai.
True, ale, a(U.
Trunk, mol (elephant's trunk).
Try to, kiwo, kiho, wo, go, hai.
Tui-meric, aeng.
Tusk, sahk.
Twelve, som le ni.
Twenty, som ni.
Twice, nive.
Two, ni.
Udder, noi.
Ugly, amel.
Umbrella, lukti.
Undo, to, hlam (of any thing tied), hong (of a door).
Uncle, mapa.
Untie, to, hlam, hong.
Untrue, alepo, ayo.
Use, matii. . ^
Usual, angai.
Utility, matu.
Vegetable, maicho.
Veranda, sambu.
Village, ku.
Vulva, shu.
Waist, kong.
Wake, to, kang, thou. '
Walk, to, kalson, S.
Wanting, to be, wat.
Wash, to, (wash the body), kishil, (wash clothes), 'ahov/
Watch, to; sang.
Water, tui.
Wax, khoiru.
Way, Iambi.
We, kehon.
Weak, adoi.
Wear,. to, bu, sil, ki-a.
Weary, chol.
Weather, hot, asat-hla J cold weather ' koshit-hlaj' rainy weather
* w6-yut-hla.*
Weave, to, khon. '
Wed, to, mao pui, kichenpi.
Weep, to, kap.
What, I, ibi.
When, interrogative, itile, ' le ' suflSxedl .to the verbal root gives
the sense of * when.'
Whence, ha, hoia.
White, abong.
White ant, leka.
Whither, ha, hoia.
Where, ha, hoia.
Who, koi, kon.
Why, ida, ibola, idingi.
Wide, awai, aphai.
Widow, metal.
Widower, pagong.
Wife, yx, i-nii, in-ne-pi.
Wild cat, sanga.
Wind, hni.
Wine, yu.
Wing, hla.
Wise, aching, ala.
Wish, to, nom.
Within, sanga, asungbva.
Without, pama.
Woman, nume.
Worm, til.
Worry, to, gim.
Worried, to be, awai, gim.
Work, tong, to.
Worship, to, kulum.
Wrestle, to, kibon kibut.
Write to, laili sut. ^
Wrist, khatgnong, khutjong.
Yellow, eng, aeng.
Yoke, namkol.
You, nahon.
Young, chapang.
Your, nahova.

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